Friday, December 27, 2019

The Metamorphosis Analysis - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 901 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2019/08/08 Category Literature Essay Level High school Tags: Metamorphosis Essay Did you like this example? In The Metamorphosis, Gregor Samsa, a travelling salesman wakes up from a dream and notices that he had transformed into a monstrous cockroach. Despite being a huge bug, he wasnt shocked about his transformation. He just wanted to get up and get to work. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Metamorphosis Analysis" essay for you Create order Prior to his transformation, Gregor took on all the responsibilities of being the bread maker and watching over his family. Now that he isnt a human anymore he fears that all the peace and contentment he managed to create will all turn into chaos. Gregors change in the physical and mental state are not the only forms of metamorphosis that occur. His transformation causes the role of authority in his family to shift as they adapt to his new form. Gregor understands that he has an obligation to take care of his family, but he hates every moment of it. If I didnt have to exercise restraint for the sake of my parents, then I would have quit a long time ago; I would have gone up to the director and told him exactly what I thought of him (Kafka, 1205). Gregor has thought about the day he could get his life back together and no longer have to work for an overbearing boss. He allows himself to stay in a miserable job for the sake of his parents and sister. He understands that at this point in his life he had no right to take authority because he was not in a position to take it. He allows himself to be ordered around so he can earn enough money to finally part ways, but not before doing right by his family. When Gregor is late for work, the director sends the chief clerk to his house. The chief clerk provides a possible reason for him not showing up to work that day, which has to do with Gregors recent position to collect payments. The chief clerks belittling does not anger or affect Gregors attitude about his work ethic. Instead, he defends himself and tries to prove he is still worthy of working at the company. Gregor still thought he still had a chance to redeem himself even in his new form because he could not deal with the idea of missing a day from work. Grete (Gregors sister) is worried about Gregor and his well-being. She leaves food for him, while taking into consideration his new appetite. She even moves furniture around in his room, so that he could be more comfortable and move around freely. Grete is the only one who can face Gregor after his transformation. This gives her new responsibilities as a caretaker. Her parents started to respect her as she took on more responsibilities and they saw her as a matured-young woman towards the end of the story. As time went on, Grete starts to neglect Gregor and eventually becomes annoyed by his presence. She starts to see him as a threat and one that must be dealt with immediately. Her newly oppressive nature emerges from fear and anger out of Gregors presence when he left his room. Gregors father responds with violence not reason, unlike Grete. His father now gave him a truly liberating kick, and he was thrown, bleeding profusely, far into his room. The door was battered shut with the cane, and then at last there was quiet (Kafka 1214). When he saw Gregors transformation he was obsessed with getting Gregor back into his room. Gregors isolation prevents him from asserting any kind of authority over his family. This also symbolizes his authority over his family is taken away from him. In the end, Grete finally asserts authority to resolve the familys ongoing problem and decides Gregors fate. We must get rid of it, cried the sister again, ?thats the only thing for it Father. You just have to put from your mind any thought that its Gregor. Our continuing to think that it was, for such a long time, therein lies the source of our misfortune (Kafka 1232). She explains that his unwillingness to remain in his room is evident to Gregors inconsiderate behavior which decidedly cannot be human. If Gregor truly cared about his familys well-being, he would have left them alone. Instead, he stays right where he is and continues to cause trauma. Gregor always provided everything for his family which promoted their laziness before his metamorphosis and after. While he worked hard to get his family out of debt, they gladly accepted his hard-earned money to use for themselves with no sense of appreciation. His father had money locked away, which couldve helped speed the process of them getting out of debt. After Gregors metamorphosis, they all got jobs because their one source of income wasnt able to carry out his work duties. His parents were able to work which makes us wonder why they didnt in the first place. When the tables had turned, Gregor needed his familys support and they eventually abandoned him. Gregors passing finally releases them from his burden. The ending of the story was sad considering how Gregor devoted his life for his family, but at the end of day they realized they didnt need him at all. In conclusion, the role of authority shifts as the family has taken their life back from Gregors overshadowing nature. They realized that they gained a lot more financially and are better off without him.

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Essay on Victim and Criminal - 1706 Words

Brute of a man must have been some sort of brawler; broad shoulders looked as though theyd seen and endured the weight of armor, eyes steely and hardened from battles untold. The expanse of his chest looked as though it shouldve been clad in plate and was instead shabbily covered by a thin layer of cloth that surely only provided scant protection against any pending attack. Waist, though not willowy by anyones standards, tapered into something more narrow than those burdensome shoulders, and drew the line to long legs that accounted for most of his height As heroic as his posture and countenance may have been, a simple glimpse into his seething eyes told of other stories, tales of malice, vice, and cruelty. While he may not have been on†¦show more content†¦The unlucky and defiant were often not so lucky even to make it that far. However, even those most practiced and professional of a criminal comes across an unlucky circumstance that not even the best set of weighted dice can cheat. The alley beneath his feet was still laden with water from the springtime storm that had spent the majority of the day hanging over the city and haunting it like some sort of gloomy gray ghost. The thick rubber soles of his weathered and beaten boots splashed about in the puddles with each step that carried him closed to the waterfront, where the last bits of daylight, which had been scant to begin with, waned and faded into the dismal gray of twilight. Across the channel, the lamps in the Cathedral District were being lit and they winked merrily at him as their light flooded the streets, seemingly made even moreso by the tolling of the bells high about the courtyard. From where he stood, he could see the churchgoers scattering into the various corners of the cathedral, readying themselves for their devout evening prayers. He shoved his cold hands further into the pockets of his thick wool coat and carried on. He was no man of God. By the time he reached his destination, his boots were waterlogged and the cold wet was beginning to seep into his socks, and he grumbled at the inconvenience of discomfortShow MoreRelatedThe Victim Of The Criminal Justice System1622 Words   |  7 PagesI start, it is important to know who is defined as a victim of crime. A victim of crime is a person who is harmed due to a criminal offence, like suffering physical or emotional harm, property damage, or economic loss as a result of a crime (Branch, L. S., 2017). Also can be a spouse, conjugal partner, relative of, or a person responsible for a victim who has passed away or is not capable to act or ‘preform’ for themselves for example a victim of child. As well as the person who harmed someone hasRead MoreThe Victims Of Criminal Justice Systems Essay2860 Words   |  12 PagesVictims of crime, particularly those violent in nature, have their rights violated and experience exceedingly high level of trauma and stress (A ppendix B, 2015). It is surprising then, that Criminal Justice Systems (CJS) around the world forgo many victims’ rights and provided limited space for them to interact with the system (Sarre, 1999). Rather systems are built around balancing the rights of offenders against the greater safety and need of the community whilst neglecting individual justice needsRead MoreThe Public ´s Perceptions of Victims and criminals 895 Words   |  4 PagesAmerica’s Most Wanted have been instrumental for the victims’ rights movement here in America. â€Å"America’s Most Wanted has become one of the most important programs on television, having played a major role in the capture of more than 1,100 fugitives in the U.S. and 30 countries, including 17 on the FBI’s Ten Most Wanted List, rescue of 61 children and Missing persons since its launch in 1988† (Welch, 2013). The host of the show John Walsh was a victim in his own right when his son Adam was tak en fromRead MoreVictims Of The American Criminal Justice System851 Words   |  4 Pagesa cause and effect. Since America’s inception as a free land, in this land people are obligated to follow laws and orders directed by the United States Government. However, many follow the laws and become victims of the American Criminal Justice system. Hence, we have people who become victims of wrong convictions. Wrongful conviction is define as a person who is currently serving a sentence via incarceration for a crime they did not commit. After the discovery of innocence, the department of correctionsRead MoreThe Victim Care Program For The Criminal Justice System Essay1405 Words   |  6 PagesThe victim care program is an important resource that helps victims in the criminal justice system. Refugee and immigrant victims can find it hard to deal with the criminal justice system in the United States. This program is designed to assists these individuals in the court system. This paper will focus on the Victim Care Program in Fort Wayne. An evaluation of this program is aimed at understanding its role and effectiveness. The data provides by Victim Care Program will help to evaluate the worthRead MoreCriminal Justice Personnel And Victims At Their Workplace Essay1777 Words   |  8 Pages Criminal Justice Personnel; Victims at Their Workplace According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics there are approximately 765,000 full time local and state law enforcement officers employed in the United States (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2011). These officers respond to various calls during a tour of duty. According to the National Incident Based Reporting System, (NIBRS), that records 71 separate crimes that officers respond to, officers reported 4,759,438 incidents in 2014. ThisRead MoreThe Relationship Between The Crime Victim and The Criminal Justice System1846 Words   |  8 Pagesthe death penalty and life without parole come exclusively from a societal, rather than an individual perspective. As well, most of the attention has focused on the institution of the death penalty and singularly on the offender instead of the victim. Thus, leaving survivors feeling ignored, devalued, and rightfully worried that there will not be justice, for them or their loved ones. Further, Peterson et el state: Survivor suffering correlates with the impact of the sentence given to theRead MoreThe Major Theories Of Criminal Behavior And The Impact Of Crime On Victims And Society1580 Words   |  7 Pages Psychology of Human and Criminal Behaviour Describing and Evaluating the Major Theories of Cause of Criminal Behaviour and the Impact of Crime on Victims and Society London Foundation campus 1. Introduction Akers Sellers (2013) noted that there are various common theories that are pertinent to the study of crime as the extents of crime explanations range from the genetic/biological through to the economic and social perspective. Howitt (2012) divided these theories intoRead MoreCriminological Theories On The Crime Scene And Measure Characteristics Of Crimes, Victims, And Criminals1303 Words   |  6 Pagesbehavioral and social sciences. Similar to other scientists, criminologists assess the crime scene and measure characteristics of crimes, victims, and criminals using various methods. The advantages associated with trying to understand why people commit crimes is that, criminologists are able develop ways to not only control crimes but also rehabilitate the criminals (Larry, 2014). To be precise, there are many theories used in criminology in order to understand why people commit crimes. For instanceRead MoreHuman Trafficking is one of the 3 largest criminal industries that take advantage of victims2100 Words   |  9 PagesHuman Trafficking is one of the 3 largest criminal industries that take advantage of victims through slavery, organ trade, sexual exploitation and forced labor. Usually a victim is legally transferred to another country so that the people of this crime are benefited financially. Human Trafficking has become a modern form of slavery. When people hears the word ‘slavery,’ it is a harsh reality for many people who finds themselves bought and sold like objects, and treated with no dignity. Human Trafficking

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Major Court and Tribunal Decisions

Question: Discuss about the Major Court and Tribunal Decisions. Answer: Introduction: The hearing with respect to the case of RP v The Queen [2016] HCA 53 was held in the high court on 21st December 2016 at 11 am. The court was preceded by Gageler J for the purpose of this case. This case concerned an appeal from Court of Criminal Appeal of the supreme court of New South Wales. In this case it was held by the high court that the previous court made an error with respect to its decision in this case where the court held that appellants conviction was reasonable in situation where there was no sufficient proof to oppose the assumption that a child aged 11 years had no idea that his acct accounted to a serious wrong morally. The case dealt with criminal proceedings with respect to capacity and criminal liability. The case was represented by H K Dhanji SC with J L Roy for the appellant and S C Dowling SC with N J Owens SC and B K Baker for the respondent. The Complainant and Appellant with respect to this case are half-brothers who are aged 6 years 9 months and 11 years 6 months respectively. In this case the appeal was allowed by the high court and it interpreted Doli incapax in a different way to that of the pervious court. The high court even set aside a few orders provided by the previous court. The court quashed the conviction and ruled a verdict of an acquittal. This part of the paper will discuss the similarities and differences between district/supreme and Magistrate courts in Australia. The major states in Australia comprises of supreme courts as well as district courts (Foster, 2013). The first level of jurisdiction at the state level is the magistrate courts. The supreme court of the state is the next level of jurisdiction which comprises of a general divisions or trial division along with a court of appeal. The supreme courts of the states have no limits on jurisdictions on matters arising within their respective states. However the Supreme Court in the states generally hears matters which have a value of more than $750,000 along with criminal matters which are very serious in nature. The court also deals with appeals which arise out of magistrate courts and other administrative tribunals of the state (Forsyth, 2015). The magistrate courts also known as the local courts in the state generally deal with matters which are less serious an d are preceded over by magistrates. Then functions of the local courts are different with respect to each state in Australia. For instance the local court of New South Wales deals with almost 90% of the criminal matters. In the Australian capital territory the local courts only deal with criminal cases to decided that the accused should be forwarded to the higher court or not. There are specific states of legislation for each state which covers the civil and criminal proceedings with respect to magistrate and supreme courts (Turton, 2015). There is no jury involved in the magistrate courts, a person who is legally qualified known as the magistrate presides over the hearings (Garnett, 2015). Magistrate or local courts generally exercise their powers on civil cases with respect to a value of $40,000 along with petty criminal matters such as bail applications, drink-driving and minor thefts. With respect to criminal offences which are more serious the magistrate courts can forward the case to a higher courts, this process is known as committal hearing (White et al., 2015). A few magistrate courts comprises of small claims tribunal, minor debts courts, coroners courts childrens courts and small claims tribunal. District courts in the state deal with a little more serious criminal matters such as rape, fraud and armed robbery along with civil matters more than the value of $250,000. The supreme courts of the state deal with the most serious criminal matters such as murder, manslaughter and major drug offences (Wallace et al ., 2014). Through this court visit it was analyzed that how courts proceedings with respect to criminal and civil matters are conducted in Australia. Through this court visit it was analyzed that the decisions of courts are not always correct and if a proper approach towards an appeal in taken it can be withheld by the higher courts. The researcher also learnt the basic principles of the doctrine of Doli incapax. The court visit was also beneficial for the researcher as he got more accustomed towards the general proceedings of the court and the decorum one should maintain within it. References: Forsyth, A. (2015). Major court and tribunal decisions in Australia in 2014.Journal of Industrial Relations, 0022185615575534. Foster, R. (2013). Towards Leadership: the emergence of contemporary court administration in Australia.International Journal for Court Administration,5(1). Garnett, R. (2015). Australias International and Domestic Arbitration Framework. InArbitration and Dispute Resolution in the Resources Sector(pp. 7-21). Springer International Publishing. Turton, D. J. (2015). Unconventional gas in Australia: towards a legal geography.Geographical Research,53(1), 53-67. Wallace, A., Mack, K., Roach Anleu, S. (2014). Work allocation in Australian courts: Court staff and the judiciary.Anne Wallace, Kathy Mack and Sharyn Roach Anleu,Work Allocation in Australian Courts: Court Staff and the Judiciary(2014),36(4) White, B., Tilse, C., Rosenman, L., Purser, K., Coe, S. (2015). Estate contestation in Australia: An empirical study of a year of case law.UNSWLJ,38, 880.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion Essay Research Paper free essay sample

Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion Essay, Research Paper 7 December 1999 The Challenger Space Shuttle Disaster The forenoon was clear, bright, and cold on January 28th, 1986, in Cape Canaveral, Florida. The skies were clear leting the Sun to reflect over the launch country at the Kennedy Space Center and effort to increase its freezing temperature. On launch tablet 39B icicles dangled from the launch tower, tablet construction, and other launch equipment ( Lewis 127 ) as the infinite bird Challenger stood in a powerful perpendicular silhouette against the forenoon visible radiation. The bird, solid projectile supporters, and external armored combat vehicle had been on the tablet for 38 yearss, and in that continuance seven inches of rain had fallen doing the ice build-up ( Mahal ) . Assorted undertaking members for mission 51-L carried out their responsibilities at the launch site fixing for the defect of the 10th flight of the satellite, Challenger. Buss unloaded partners, kids, and parents of the bird crew at the VIP observation site three and a half stat mis off from the launch tablet ( Lewis 1 ) . We will write a custom essay sample on Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion Essay Research Paper or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This new site, closer than usual, gave household, friends, and imperativeness a greater sense of engagement in the launch. Positioned as they were between the imperativeness grandstand, web telecasting platforms, and looming stockade of the vehicle assembly edifice and launch control centre ( McConnell 136 ) , all peoples? senses awaited the 11:38 a.m. ET lift-off with expectancy. It was launch twenty-four hours at the Kennedy Space Center. After five yearss of hold filled with air current, rain, and defeat, Challenger was eventually ready to travel on mission 51-L, the 25th mission for the universe? s foremost fleet of reclaimable manned starships ( Lewis 1 ) . Public involvement in the flight had been focused by a strong public-relations flood tide on the first private citizen to wing on board a infinite bird. Sharon Christa McAuliffe, age 37, was a high school instructor who had been selected through the National Aeronautics and Space Administration? s ( NASA ) sweepstakes from more than 11,000 appliers ( The Crew? ) to be the first instructor in infinite. Her assignment was to show and explicate the effects of microgravity in the context of Newtonian natural philosophies and the scientific, commercial, and industrial applications of infinite flight. She so was to turn to an audience of schoolchildren via telecasting from the ballistic capsule ( Lewis 1 ) . The presence of this personable and attractive immature adult female added a new dimension to the populace? s perceptual experience of the infinite plan. Space flight in America was no longer merely the sole rights of spacemans, scientists, and applied scientists, but an experience shared by the whole society. Christa made Challenger flight 51-L the most publicized flight since the Apollo undertaking over a decennary earlier. Other crew members included spacecraft commanding officer Francis R. ( Dick ) Scobee, pilot Michael J. Smith, mission specializers Judith A. Resnik, Ronald E. McNair, and Ellison S. Onizuka, and warhead specializer Gregory B. Jarvis. Scobee was a Rival veteran who flew its 5th orbital flight in 1984. Smith was selected as a NASA spaceman in 1980 and was doing his first infinite mission flight. Resnik, one of three mission specializers on Challenger, became the 2nd American adult female to revolve during the flight of Discovery STS-41-D. McNair was one of the first three Black Americans to come in the spaceman cell, and the 2nd Black American in infinite in 1984 on the Challenger STS-41-B. Onizuka, winging as a mission specializer on STS-51-C, was doing his 2nd shuttle mission. Jarvis, like McAuliffe # 8211 ; non a federal authorities employee, was made available for the Challenger flight by his company Hughes Aircraft, Space, and Communicationss Group. His responsibilities on the Challenger involved garnering new information on the design of liquid-fueled projectiles ( The Crew? ) . On top of McAuliffe? s? dream come true? to attach to the Challenger mission, the remainder of the crew? s diverseness led to even more public entreaty: there were two adult females # 8211 ; one an ordinary citizen, a Black American adult male McNair, a Hawaiian indigen Born to Japanese-American parents Onizuka, and two members of the crew who were non federal employees ( The Crew? ) . The coverage of this mission was particular for the media before it of all time became tragic. January 28th, 1986, was the coldest twenty-four hours that NASA had of all time attempted to establish a manned ballistic capsule. In fact, at 36 grades Fahrenheit, it was 15 grades colder than any old launch temperature ( Mahal ) . Although lift-off clip for the Challenger flight 51-L had been delayed twice that forenoon, all operations and systems seemed to be under control. An? ice? squad had been sent to the launch tablet at 1:30 ante meridiem and once more at 8:45 a.m. and although there was some build-up, ice was cleared as a concern. Other conditions conditions were cleared by NASA staff over Cape Canaveral through the usage of conditions balloons and besides over the exigency set downing site in Dakar, Senegal ( Lewis 5 ) . The seven member crew arrived at the launch tablet in the spacemans? new wave shortly after 8 and were all strapped into their seats by 8:36 a.m. The big audience gathered at the VIP observation site, excepting household and imperativeness, represented NASA? s pride of their unique? orbital schoolroom? mission. NASA functionaries invited 100s of invitees to see the launch of 51-L, including McAuliffe? s 3rd grade category from Kimball Elementary School ( McConnell 247 ) . Educators, corporate patrons of the Young Astronauts Council, members of the Michigan Republican party organisation, president, members of the Teacher Astronaut Selection Panel, and a deputation from the People? s Republic of China were besides invitees ( Lewis 3 ) . So, with all eyes watching, this is a first-hand experience from the spacemans? households: ? ? Three, two, one? ? [ stated mission control ] . ? Roger. Travel with the accelerator up, ? shuttle commanding officer Dick Scobee radioed? His girl Kathie, 25, huddled with her female parent, brother and infant boy on a roof at Cape Canaveral, along with the assembled households of the six other Challenger spacemans about to blare into infinite. She felt the rumbling of liftoff and hugged her babe closer in the cold. ? Wow, expression how reasonably, ? she said 74 seconds subsequently. ? Is that normal? ? person else in the crowd asked. ? They? re gone, ? said Jane, married woman of pilot Michael Smith. ? What do you mean, Mom? ? asked her boy. ? They? rhenium lost, ? she replied. All over the state, the 1000000s watching that atrocious bloom spread across their telecasting screens realized that something had gone incorrect before they heard the voice of mission control: ? Obviously? a major malfunction. ? ? ( Toss offing ) As schoolchildren everyplace gazed skyward, what Christa had promised would be? the ultimate field trip? ( Toss offing ) ended in catastrophe. The households were jostled off the roof, down lifts, and into coachs. Still dazed, Kathie clung to the babe Justin and eyed the NASA staff. ? The expressions on their faces told me that something was truly, perfectly, awfully incorrect, ? she recalls. The households waited for intelligence in the crew? s quarters. Christa? s hubby Steve McAuliffe, with Scott, 9, and Caroline, 6, sat in Christa? s residence hall room. ? This is non how it? s supposed to be, ? he whispered ( Toss offing ) . Rather than presenting the State of the Union reference that flushing as scheduled, President Ronald Reagan made a brief address. ? We? ll go on our quest in infinite, ? he promised traumatized Americans. ? There will be more shuttle flights and more birds crews and, yes, more voluntaries, more civilians, more instructors in infinite? ( Toss offing ) . There would be no shuttle flights for about three old ages. There would be no instructor in infinite, and for those left on the land, for the households of seven deceased spacemans, there would be old ages of resentment, heartache and choler, and hurting before their lives could eventually heal. What went incorrect? What really happened to do a seasoned infinite bird such as Challenger to dysfunction on its ten percent run? Challenger exploded 73 seconds after launch. At 0.68 seconds after ignition, videotape showed black fume coming from the bottom field articulation of the right solid projectile supporter ( SRB ) . The SRB comes in four sections that are assembled. The bottom field articulation is the lower articulation on the SRB. The black fume suggested that lubricating oil, articulation insularity, and rubber O-rings were being burned. The fume continued to come from the bottom field articulation confronting the exterior armored combat vehicle in rhythms of three whiffs of fume per second. The last whiff of fume was seen at 2.7 seconds. The black fume was an indicant that the bottom field articulation was non sealing right ( Mahal ) . At 58.8 seconds into flight, on enhanced movie, a fire was seen coming from the right SRB. The fire was coming from the bottom of the bottom articulation. It was firing gas that was get awaying from the SRB. A fraction of a 2nd subsequently, at 59.3 seconds, the fire was good defined and could be seen without enhanced movie. As the fire increased in size, it had begun to force against the external armored combat vehicle due to the hotfooting air around the satellite ( Mahal ) . The SRB is attached to the external armored combat vehicle by a series of prances that run aboard the external armored combat vehicle. One of these prances is located at 310 grades of the perimeter of the SRB. As the fire grew, it pushed against this prance with an intense heat of about 5,600 grades Fahrenheit, doing it hot and weak. The first sight that the fire was hitting the external armored combat vehicle was at 64.7 seconds, when the colour of the fire changed. Color alteration indicated that the fire was being produced through blending with another substance. This other substance was liquid H, which is stored in the bottom external armored combat vehicle. Pressure alterations from the H armored combat vehicle confirmed that there was a leak ( Mahal ) . At 72 seconds at that place was a sudden concatenation of events that destroyed Challenger and the seven crew members on board. By now, the lower prance linking the right SRB to the external armored combat vehicle was highly hot and really weak. With the sum of force given by the SRB, the lower prance broke off from both the right SRB and the external armored combat vehicle, leting the right SRB to revolve freely around the top prances. The underside of the SRB swung around striking, denting, and firing Challenger # 8217 ; s wing. There was an utmost force that shot the H armored combat vehicle frontward into the O armored combat vehicle doing them to split. At 73.12 seconds into flight, a white vapour was seen from the bottom corner of the right SRB. The white vapour was the mixture of H and O. Merely milliseconds after the white vapour was seen, at 73.14 seconds, the freshness turned into a bolide in a immense detonation. The chief detonation was the H and O that came from the external armored combat vehicle. Challenger was going at a velocity of Mach 1.92 at a tallness of 46,000 pess when it blew up. The last recorded transmittal from Challenger was at 73.62 seconds after launch ( Mahal ) . Michael Smith was recorded as stating, ? Uhh Ohio? ( Lewis 16 ) ! Six yearss subsequently, President Reagan, who was moved and troubled by the atrocious accident of mission 51-L, appointed an independent committee made up of individuals non connected with the mission to look into it. The intent of the committee was to: ? 1 ) Review the fortunes environing the accident to set up the likely cause or causes of the accident ; and 2 ) Develop recommendations for restorative or other action based upon the committee? s findings and findings? ( Haggerty foreword ) . The committee was headed by Chairman, William P. Rogers, a former secretary of province under President Nixon and former lawyer general under president Eisenhower. Thus, the fact-finding party became known as the? Rogers? Commission. Other selected individuals included Vice-Chairman, Neil Armstrong, a old NASA spaceman and federal employee, every bit good as Sally Ride. The balance of the committee was made up of David Acheson, Eugene Covert, Richard Feyman, Robert Hotz, Donald Kutyna, Robert Rummel, Joseph Sutter, Arthur Walker Jr. , Albert Wheelon, Charles Yeager, and Alton Keel Jr. ( Haggerty committee ) . Immediately after being appointed, the Rogers Commission moved frontward in its probe with the full support of the White House. Although they held public hearings covering with the facts taking up to the accident, they felt the manner to cover with a failure of this magnitude was to unwrap all the facts to the full and openly. The committee took immediate stairss to rectify errors that led to the failure and helped to regenerate assurance and finding within NASA, in the eyes of the populace every bit good as NASA itself. The probe? s chief aim was non needfully to indicate fingers, but to see assurance in NASA? s system for the public and work forces and adult females who fly the birds. It focused its attending on the safety facets of future flights based on lessons learned from the appraisal, with the purpose being to return to safe infinite flight. ( Haggerty foreword ) . At first, NASA seemed to be keep backing information about the accident from the public, imperativeness, and Rogers Commission. The imperativeness was declaring it a intelligence? blackout? by NASA. A twenty-four hours subsequently, in response to a inquiry posed by Jay Barbree of NBC wireless, Jesse Moore, associate decision maker of The Office of Space Flight, replied, ? I have non gotten a briefing, Jay, on what the recovery squad has found at this point in clip. ? I have fundamentally looked at the NASA select exposures and so away, as you did, and all I can state is that it appeared from those exposures that there was an detonation. ? that? s about all I can state at this point in clip? ( Lewis 27 ) . Approximately two hebdomads following the calamity, the Rogers Commission was able to reassure the populace that the full narrative was being told in an orderly and thorough mode. The consensus of the Rogers Commission and other take parting fact-finding bureaus is that the loss of the infinite bird Challenger was caused by a failure in a joint between the two lower sections of the right solid projectile supporter ( Haggerty 4 ) . The solid projectile supporter # 8217 ; s sections are joined together by a nip and clevis articulation. Each section has a nip on the underside and a clevis on top. The clevis is the female connection, while the nip is the male linking constituent. The bottom-mid section connects to the underside section with a nose. Where this occurs is called the bottom field articulation. There are two ? washers? called O-rings that wr ap around the clevis and seal the joint, every bit good as a Zn chromate putty that is stuck in the joint. The bottom field articulation is the joint that failed on the right solid projectile supporter ( Mahal ) . There were a few causes that could hold lead to the joint seal failure: 1 ) Damage or taint could hold occurred during the assembly. 2 ) The spread between the articulations had grown as a consequence of anterior usage of the solid projectile motors. 3 ) The temperature on the twenty-four hours of the launch was 36 grades ; the temperature of the bottom right field articulation was 28 grades at launch clip. 4 ) The public presentation of the putty ( zinc chromate ) that was applied to the joint ( Mahal ) . 5 ) Overall building of field articulations made by Morton Thiokol, the company that produces the SRBs for NASA. The consequences included a combination of these possible causes. Although a serious concern, harm and/or taint of the field articulations at the clip of assembly was ruled out as a conducive component of flight 51-L? s malfunction by the Rogers Commission. Records showed that the sections were assembled utilizing approved processs. Significant out-of-round conditions existed between the two sections joined at the bottom right field articulation. This caused a spread concern during assembly, but trial records show that the spread was in the acceptable scope of mistake ( Haggerty 4 ) . Temperature was a cardinal factor involved in failure of the field joint seal. On the forenoon of the launch, the coldest articulations were the bottom field articulations of the right SRB. Recall, that the temperature of that field articulation was 28 grades F. The temperature of the opposite side was about 50 grades F. When the O-rings are cold, they are really stiff and make non travel every bit rapidly as they should. Out of 21 launches with temperatures of 61 grades F or greater, merely four showed marks of O-ring thermal hurt. Each of the launches below 61 grades resulted in one or more O-rings demoing marks of eroding of blow-by and carbon black ( Haggerty 4 ) . Trials were done to see how fast O-rings seal at different temperatures. At 75 grades F the O-rings seal within 530 msecs. On the opposite side of the graduated table an O-ring at 20 grades F takes 1.9 seconds to seal ( Mahal ) . It is this difference in clip that most probably caused the detonation of the Challenger. The public presentation of the putty is another likely cause of the joint seal failure. The Zn chromate putty is placed on the interior of the articulations and besides forced between the spread of the nip and clevis during assembly. It is at that place to halt burning of hot gas from making the O-rings. The hot gases can do holes in the putty, therefore allowing gas travel through to the O-rings which could do harm ( Mahal ) . Prior to the 10th launch of the Challenger, the company that had been bring forthing the putty for the SRB articulations went out of concern. Putty had to be obtained from a new beginning and post-testing showed that it was more susceptible to environmental effects ; wet made it tackier ( Lewis 83 ) . Due to the launch temperature being really important, the Rogers Commission took this happening into history as a conducive factor. The Rogers Commission found that the failure was due to a faulty design intolerably sensitive to a figure of factors ( reusability, putty and O-ring public presentation in inauspicious temperatures ) . The fact-finding party concluded that the company bring forthing the O-rings, Morton Thiokol, and NASA were guilty of leting an evitable accident to occur ( Toss offing ) . This accident was deemed evitable through research done on both companies? applied scientists, prior memorandums sent between the companies and section caputs, and events that took topographic point on the Eve of flight 51-L. On July 31st, 1985, Roger Boisjoly, Staff Engineer in applied mechanics at Morton Thiokol, sent a memo to Robert Lund, Thiokol? s Vice President of Engineering, pressing that Thiokol? s unofficial undertaking force originally? said? to be assigned to the field articulation job officially be pulled from their regular responsibilities and really assigned to the job. The memo concluded, ? It is my [ Roger Boisjoly ] honest and existent fright that if we do non take immediate action to give a squad to work out the job with the field articulation holding the figure one precedence, so we stand in hazard of losing a flight along with all the launch tablet installations? ( Vaughan 448 ) . Prior to this undertaking force petition? eight old ages prior, NASA and Morton Thiokol both new that the solid projectile supporters were ill designed. In that period of clip about every launch had been recorded as holding some type of eroding with the ill-famed O-rings. When Roger Boisjoly voiced his concern, about a twelvemonth and a half before the launch of the Challenger, the section heads coolly assured him that it was being worked on. A message sent in August of 1985 from the undertaking applied scientist recognized the job, stated that long term solutions looked good, and simple short term steps should be taken to? cut down flight hazards? ( Vaughan 449 ) . The long term solutions were projected to necessitate several old ages. Shuttlecocks had already been at hazard, and for the clip being would stay at hazard. The dark before the fatal launch, a figure of applied scientists voiced their concerns. Roger Boisjoly and others advised that a launch temperature of 53 grades Fahrenheit was crucial for proper operation of the field articulations? O-rings ( Vaughan 338 ) . Chief executives and caputs argued with irony inquiring the applied scientists why they thought 53 was the thaumaturgy figure? The Rogers Commission subsequently found that head executives of Morton Thiokol were in understanding with the lower degree research applied scientists until they found out that NASA was sing other companies to construct the projectile supporters. Not desiring to lose their biggest client, Thiokol caputs changed theirs minds a few yearss before the 28th to move in the ? best involvements? of the house # 8211 ; to travel a caput with the launch ( Vaughan 337 ) . This provided an even tougher challenge for Boisjoly and company to alter anyone? s head on the launch Eve. He subsequently states, ? This was a meeting where the finding was to establish, and it was up to us to turn out beyond a shadow of a uncertainty that it was non safe to make so. This is in entire contrary to what the place normally is in a preflight conversation or a flight preparedness reappraisal? ( Vaughan 338 ) . The applied scientists were ignored. No one went to the imperativeness or a member of Congress. No 1 tried to make the spacemans and inform them of the hazards they were taking if they launched the following forenoon. High-level applied scientists told NASA what it wanted to hear, and low-level applied scientists held their breath and went back to work. These were the grounds the Rogers Commission found NASA and Thiokol guilty of an? evitable? accident. NASA? s haste to establish despite technology expostulations is typical of American corporate behaviour. Although NASA is a authorities bureau, non a concern, by seeking to do the bird commercially practical, NASA subjected its operations to concern considerations about from the beginning. Furthermore, the bureau is basically a coordinator of the work of a big figure of private corporations, where most of the applied scientists and technicians that were at inquiry were employed. The shuttle detonation is merely? another illustration of the acceleration debasement of the position of the applied scientist in the American corporation, ? says Ralph Nadar, a chemical applied scientist at Union Carbide ( Lindorff 880 ) . The net income motivation for the companies seemed to be overruling technology concerns at precisely the clip when the applied scientist? s positions were crucially of import. What happened at NASA and Morton Thiokol is a utile lesson for corporations: non merely were the applied scientists overruled by the direction, they were so afraid of revenge that they didn? T travel outside the concatenation of bid. Other than honest ethical patterns, they had a ground to be. Thiokol? s first reaction to the catastrophe was to punish Roger Boisjoly and Allan McDonald, Director of Solid Rocket Motors. These two were the chief perpetrators of showing the beliing launch grounds on the dark before the launch and besides the applied scientists who testified entirely before the Presidential Commission. For this, Thiokol decided to penalize them by transfering them and cut downing their duties ( Lindorff 880 ) . Intimidation plays a immense function in corporate America. When a? whistle blower, ? a lone cat doing noise ( Lindorff 881 ) , raises a ailment, the most simple option for the company is dismissal. The deficiency of single protection, particularly for applied scientists, is doing a decaying hole in the codification of moralss. Boisjoly and McDonald knew precisely why they felt the launch of the Challenger should hold been delayed once more, but after being shooting down and close out by upper degree direction that dark, they turned off with their fingers crossed and accepted their effort as good plenty, fearful of who else to turn to. By noon the following twenty-four hours, the applied scientists had 2nd ideas on allowing effects usher their ethical determinations. A quotation mark by Seymour Melman, an industrial applied scientist at Columbia University, from Lindorff? s article depicts merely how awful unacted upon ethical determinations can be in America: ? ? In the Soviet Union it? s called democratic centralism? you argue and argument until the leading reaches a determination, and so you shut up and travel along. Here in the United States it? s merely called seting on your direction cap. In the terminal, they? re the same thing. The lone difference is that here [ in America ] , after a catastrophe, you learn about it because we have a tradition of independent establishments, like The New York Times or National Public Radio. ? ( 880 ) On January 28th, 1986, the independent establishments surely did non neglect the state. Live national imperativeness coverage let even the most rural communities join in and experience like portion of the event. Somehow NASA and Christa McAuliffe had created something so wonderful that it joined the American people as if there was an unseeable flow of keeping custodies countrywide. NASA was an impenetrable world power and it made the people feel the same. If you asked me personally where I was in the late forenoon on that twenty-four hours of January, I could state you really explicitly. My full 3rd class category at Sandoz Elementary School had been given the privilege to watch the launch with other categories in the library. We had been covering the Challenger mission for hebdomads in category, fixing for the day of the month with expectancy. Merely prior to our tiffin and recess period we all sat Indian-style on the floor waiting for the minute softly. As I watched the shuttle ascend and disappear, detonating in the fume, denial set in. I thought I had missed something, or the station was demoing footage of a old catastrophe. Realization of the truth didn? T set in until subsequently when our instructor had the unsettling undertaking of explicating to the category what really did happened. A survey conducted in 1993 published in Change magazine by Arthur Levine, revealed some interesting positions of college pupils of that coevals. Twenty-eight collegiate establishments were visited by Levine and other co-workers, where they met with eight to ten pupils per establishment. The inquiry posed was, what societal and political events had most influenced their coevals? Five common replies were given. The most frequent reply was the Challenger detonation. It seemed that one time one pupil mentioned it, other members of the group would get down by agitating their caputs in understanding and so go on discoursing about it in an unfastened treatment. Levine provinces, ? It was the equivalent of the Kennedy blackwash for this generation. ? All the pupils knew where they had been when they heard the intelligence ; most had watched it on telecasting in school. Some had been scheduled to hold the teacher-astronaut Christa McAuliffe Teach them from infinite. As pupils talked about their first shared generational calamity in the sense that it shattered both their idealism and their feeling of security, Levine remembers some of their quotation marks: ? I ever thought NASA was perfect. ? ? There were smashed dreams because of it. ? ? My hopes were in it. There was an Asiatic, a Black, and two women. ? Levine concludes by recognizing that the relationship between Christa McAuliffe and this coevals felt so personal to them, that for many it was their first coppice with decease ( 10-11 ) . As NASA looks to the hereafter, happening ways to travel higher, faster, and further, the calamity of mission 51-L will neer be forgotten. Few of the disposal from 1986 still work for NASA, but despite this, the plan as a whole is continually seeking to upgrade safety processs and equipment. The crew of the doomed Challenger have staked their claim in the history books and due to the extended media coverage, stop dead images in peoples? heads that might last everlastingly. Whenever covering with hazardous engineering, accidents are bound to go on. It? s genuinely excessively bad that such a collaborating, heart-felt event had a tragic terminal that crushed America? s societal indomitability. The yesteryear has a quality of reiterating itself, and when NASA? s luckless twenty-four hours comes up once more, it will most likely set the graduated table for the most covered infinite mission in history, once more. Plants Cited ? The Crew of the Challenger Shuttle Mission in 1986. ? WWW. NASA. 2 Dec. 1999. Downing, Claudia Glenn. ? The Challenger Disaster: 10 Old ages Later. ? Life. Feb. 1996. WWW. Pathfinder. 29 Nov. 1999. Haggerty, James, Anthony E. Hartle, and William Bauman. ? Report of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident. ? Ed. Woods Hansen. 6 June 1986. WWW. Kennedy Space Center/NASA. 2 Dec. 1999: foreword, chapters 4-5, 9, committee. Levine, Arthur. ? The Making of a Generation. ? Change Sept.-Oct. 1993: 10-11. Lewis, Richard S. Challenger: The Final Voyage. New York: Columbia UP, 1988. Lindorff, Dave. ? When All Systems Aren? T Go ; Engineers? Duty to Speak Out. ? The State 28 June 1996: 881-882. Mahal, Davinder S. ? The Space Shuttle Challenger Accident, 1986. ? 1996. WWW. 1 Dec. 1999. McConnell, Malcolm. Rival: A Major Malfunction. Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company, Inc. , 1987. Vaughan, Diane. The Challenger Launch Decision: Risky Technology, Culture, and Aberrance at NASA. Chicago: Uracil of Chicago P, 1996. 34c

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

British Imperialism In Africa Essays - International Relations

British Imperialism in Africa British Imperialism in Africa The motives of Britain's imperialist activities in Africa from 1869 to 1912 were strategic and defensive. While other motives did exist, such as to colonize, to search for new markets and materials, to attain revenge and world prestige, to convert natives to Christianity, and to spread the English style of orderly government, the main motives evident in many events of the period showed attempts to safeguard the country and protect former land holdings. As its free trade and influential relationship with Africa was threatened, Britain began to turn trade agreements into stronger and more formal protectorates and even colonies. Britain acted to protect the route east and its connection with the Indian Empire. Rather than to expand the British Empire, Britain fought battles over territory to prevent French or German control in Africa. Britain's imperialist involvement in the scramble for Africa occurred in response to the actions of the French and even German. Britain had a history of African trade agreements and, compared to its European counterparts, the highest degree of control in Africa. France and Britain began an earnest race for the Niger in 1883, agreeing then to divide the territory--Lagos to Britain and Timbuktu for France. This did not neutralize the competition, however. Britain had to act in Nigeria (1885) and Nyasaland (1891) to protect existing spheres of commercial and missionary activities. France's strategy to declare its "right of occupation" and then seek negotiation further urged Britain's aggressive maintenance of territory. The British annexed Bechuanaland (1885) partly to guard against the Germans; partly to prevent its absorption by the Transvaal, which would have increased the power of the Boers. (Faber 57-58) Later, in 1888, the French threatened the Britain dominated Nile Valley, hinting they might divert the water of the Nile to render the area useless. In East Africa the British had strategic motives to protect the Suez Canal and the route to the east. As the scramble exploded in the 1880s, Britain was suddenly challenged for her right to trade and conduct financial and military business. "The prime object was defensive [in the eighties], as it had been under Disraeli: the prevention of serious inroads on British power; the anticipation of other powers, when strategically necessary, in the 'Scramble for Africa'; the protection of the route to India and the East. The safety of the Suez Canal had already become a cardinal point of British policy." (Faber 57) The first showdown over the route to the east between Britain and France occurred in Egypt. French pride over a new Egyptian canal, built in 1869, was soaring. It was abruptly grounded in 1875, however, by a surreptitious British purchase of the majority share in the Suez Canal. A dubious balance of power was achieved through duel Anglo-French control of Egypt. Britain was able to prevail over France during the Egyptian Crisis, as the French government did not allow French involvement in smothering the rebellion. This afforded the British a chance to re-establish their role in world military dominance. These conflicts were clearly not for the purpose of monetary gain on Britain's part. The Economist observed in 1892 that East Africa was 'probably an unprofitable possession'; it was primarily for strategic reasons that the government held on to it. By 1893, France was still not reconciled to Britain's role in the Nile Valley. They tried to follow through on earlier threats to divert the headwaters of the Nile to devastate the valley. An expedition headed by Jean-Baptiste Marchand finally departed in 1896 and marched from the west coast to Fashoda, a city on the upper Nile. Britain responded to rumors of this expedition by ordering that an army lead by Herbert Horatio Kitchener conquest the Sudan in order to protect the Nile from the French. Kitchener crushed the politically separatist Sudanese, winning the famous Battle of Omdurman in 1898. He took Khartoum and moved on to Fashoda by September, where Marchand had been camped out since April. Britain and France teetered on the brink of war, which was finally averted by careful handling by both Marchand and Kitchener. Britain's action in South Africa helped to protect their connection to the Indian Empire. They officially annexed South Africa in 1877, recognizing this might lead to a reduction of British responsibilities South Africa. It was also important that they maintain their control to keep other powers from getting a foothold. The Boer War ended in 1902, while the Transvaal was given self-rule by Britain 1906. Britain was not an instigator in the scramble for Africa, but rather a reactionary nation who responded to the actions of

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Reading Response on Missions Essay Example

Reading Response on Missions Essay Example Reading Response on Missions Essay Reading Response on Missions Essay The most effective way to employ the mission strategy is to know the past history of missions in our world. In the reading, R. Pierce Beaver gives the reader a look into the time line of missions throughout history. He starts by telling us of Boniface who was a man that first used an approach that was effective and set the stage for later works. Boniface used an aggressive approach, but in the end won over the locals and taught them how to live creating a civilized society. Beaver next discusses The Crusades. He explains how this war against Muslims left a hatred to the Islamic lands making it almost impossible for missions there. Despite this, the reader learns of two men who went to teach in love; Francis of Cassis and Ramona Lull. Lull, especially, was dedicated to the task of winning over the Muslims and devised a system to answer all opposition to Christianity by the Muslims. Until his death, he begged for an institution that would help train others to reach the Muslims. Beaver moves on to explain missions in Colonial expansion. During this time, Christianity became a worldwide religion in connection with expansion. The Pope told the monarchs to evangelize the people of the lands, found a church, and preserve it. This made mission part of the government itself. The mission strategies of the 17th century were connected to this expansion as well. Manuals of missionary principles and practice described what was needed to be a missionary. Also during this time, colleges and other institutions were put into place to help train those missionaries. The missionaries of the 17th century were the Jesuits. They shared the gospel with the native people by learning their language and customs and formed the gospel around it. The Shogun shut down Christianity and closed Japan to outsiders which sent the Christians underground. Eventually, Japan was reopened two centuries later. During the 19th century, Protestant missions largely made up the time period. Their goal was that of worldwide missions. The Protestants viewed the main objective of missions as Civilizing the locals because they viewed their culture as degenerate. This soon began to change with the help of two theoreticians; Henry Venn and Rufus Anderson. They established the three self formula which stated that the goal of session was to plant and foster the development of churches that will be self- governing, self-supporting, and self-propagating. Both men felt that after an area had been function well, the missionary should leave and go to another place to share the new of the gospel. American missions adopted these theories but the British missions resisted them. Also during the 19th century, we begin to see an emergence of missions in education and medicine. Another aspect of this time period was that of comity, which was employed by the Southern Baptists. Comity was put into place to eliminate competition for areas of need in missions. With these new tactics, cooperation was great and led to increasing home base communications. After World War II, missions changed again. Roland Allen wrote that the missionary was to be an instrument of the Holy Spirit. That they should convey the gospel and the simplest statement of faith. The old missions dissolved and made way for what we have today. Missionaries began to take Jobs in the culture and work as the people to religions in the world mission as well.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Corporate Strategy Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Corporate Strategy - Assignment Example While Alitalia, a two-third state-owned enterprise was beset with labour union problems and was almost teetering near bankruptcy with net losses of 519 mn in the close of 2003 (its auditors refusing to certify its results!) (Source:ICFAI), BA was also consistently making loss in the 1980's until an ambitious privatisation programe slowly changed its fortunes by the onset of the Gulf War. BA also suffered extreme negative publicity due to some failed campaigns against competitor Richard Branson's Virgin Atlantic, facing lawsuits worth 3 million (Soure:Wikipedia), not to mention trade union problems, strikes etc. which continue until this day. The scenario is far more encouraging today. British Airways despite some steady hurdles like high oil prices, and a strong pound, have maintained profits since privatisation and quite consistently, since 2002. Its net profit for March 2006 stands at 529 mn (Source:Hemscott). With the relentless pursuit on upgrade of fleet and service management, the loss-making Giant has transformed into a lean, mean machine. As for Alitalia, losses are down at 200 mn in 2006 amid continued shutdown fears. (Airwise) Turnaround roadmap Organisationally, both airlines have changed for the better. While the British Airways is a newly-revived private major, Alitalia also has reduced government stake from two-thirds to about 49% (Airwise). Over 23,000 jobs were slashed in the 1980's during BA's get lean mission (Wikipedia). As for Alitalia, its decision in Sept 2004 to cut down over 5000 jobs brought it to a standstill due to a more hostile labour union, although the management announced March 2006 that its cost-cutting measures were 80% over. Alitalia, in 2001 became member of Europe's conglomerate Sky Team Alliance, as is eventually bracing for a merger with Air France and KLM (wikipedia). BA has reinvented itself around localising itself in the Asian market, by launching in 1995 a subsidiary called British Asia Airways in Taiwan replacing its traditional Union tailfin for a Chinese character emblem. BA also launched a low-cost airline called Go in 1998, and is thus better prepared, organisationally, to lead itself into the future (wikipedia). Most corporate strategies swiftly achieve results after what is known as situation and SWOT analysis, and brainstorming for a solution. BA started conducting "scenario workshops" in Feb 1994 (Moyer, K). The task at hand was to capture current scenario so that future strategy could be planned. Over 40 interviews were conducted with senior managers, and then with academics, engineers and aircraft manufacturers on a host of topics from IT and air transport regulations. All this culminated into developing teams writing the "official future" of the airline. Simultaneously, data on passenger traffic, economic growth and aircraft

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Exam Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 2

Exam - Assignment Example Dependency theory sees the world in the perspective of making poor nations or countries poorer, and enriching those that are already rich and wealthy. In other words, the inequality of countries across the world results in dominance by wealthy nations over poor nations. For example, developing countries like those in Latin America depend on the developed ones for aid among other things. With this, the developed economies deplete African resources in the name of the aids provided. The integration of weak economies is unfair relative to weak and string economies or countries in the world system. Trade agreement between the United States and Latin America would be seen as a means for United States to exploit Latin America. In the modernization theory, trade agreement between the United States and Latin America would be seen in a whole new perspective. The agreement would be treated as a bid to enhance economic relations between United States and Latin America. The move would be welcome in business and commerce terms relative to international interdependency that is based on the fact that no single nation is self-sufficient. On the other hand, the third way would see this agreement as a trail towards optimizing the welfare of both nations, in the consideration of their differences. Emerging economies like China are threatening the position of other strong nations in the world. Realism and liberalism would treat China’s rise in a global context. That is to say that China’s mode of interaction with the rest of the world would be evaluated in a global context. Given that China is more oriented towards a socialist political system, its position in realism would be characterized by the concept relations that only benefits China, a scenario that is likely to influence close associates of China like Brazil. On the other hand, liberalism would view China as a rather static nation in reforms, due to its high urge

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Influencing Individuals and Groups Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Influencing Individuals and Groups - Essay Example Negotiation is then sought, to amicably discuss and assess the situation and to find solutions to the problems incurred. In order to combat this, effective leadership is needed. Leaders become role models for people and help them to achieve goals. Wal Mart needs to resolve issues by finding feasible solutions for conflicts. Employees who have a positive attitude are a boon to an organization, and, it is easier to retain and train those employees rather than to try and modify those with a negative attitude. As conflict resolution needs participaton and collaboration of employees; Wal Mart helps in bringing about people development, collaboration and team work among its employees. School Press, H. 2006. Written Communications that Inform and Influence: The Results-Driven Manager Series (Paperback). Harvard Business School Press Books, 1. Retrieved from Business Source Complete

Friday, November 15, 2019

Understanding The True Meaning Of Heritage

Understanding The True Meaning Of Heritage Alice Walker illustrates the significance of heritage in material objects by contrasting the family members in the story Everyday Use. Walker uses Mamma and Maggie, the youngest of the two daughters, as an example that heritage travels from one generation to another through experience and learning. However, Dee, the oldest daughter, possesses a misconception of heritage as material. During Dees visit with Maggie and Mamma, the contrast of the characters becomes a conflict because Dee misplaces the significance of heritage in her hope for displaying her racial heritage. Dee doesnt understand the true meaning of her heritage, unlike her sister and mother who do understand the true story behind the quilt and churn top. In Everyday Use Walker embodies the different sides of culture and heritage in the characters of Dee, Maggie and Mamma through symbolism in the quilt and churn, characterization of Mamma and Dee, and the impact of setting and education. Dee, Maggie, and Mamma each have a different outlook on their African heritage and culture. Unlike Mama who is rough and man-like, and Maggie who is shy and scared, Dee is confident, and beautiful: first glimpse of leg out of the car tells me it is Dee. Her feet were always neat-looking, as if God had shaped them Dee next. A dress down to the ground, in this hot weather. A dress so loud it hurts my eyes. There are yellows and oranges enough to throw back the light of the sun. Earrings gold, too, and hanging down to her shoulders (Walker 111). Maggie has lived in Dees shadow her whole life. Mamma describes Maggie as walking with her chin on chest, eyes on ground, feet in shuffle, ever since the fire (Walker 109). Even though the fire has had a major impact on Maggies body and personality, she still lives a satisfying and practical life, sharing the daily chores with Mama. In the near future she will marry John Thomas, a local man who seems to be a realistic choice (Walker 110). Mama i s more into the rough work, such as kill and clean a hog as mercilessly as a man, with her rough, man-working hands (Walker 110). Mamma symbolizes a simple satisfying way of life where items of culture and heritage are valued for both their usefulness as well as their personal significance. Mamma dreams a dream that her daughter, Dee, will arrive home and embrace her with tears in her eyes, and show affection for her. But when she comes home, Dee is seen as a stranger. She greets them saying Wasuzo-Teano! When Mamma refers to Dee by her name, Dee replies with No, Mama. Not Dee, Wangero Leewanika Kemanjo! Mamma asks, What happened to Dee? Dee replies with, Shes dead. I couldnt bear it any longer, being named after the people who oppress me (Walker 111). Dees proclamation of her new name is a turning point in the story in which pushes Mammas limits (Farrell 179-86). In this part of the story Dee is rejecting her family history. Dee doesnt understand that there is actually a story of how she got her name. Mamma is quick to point out that Dee is named after her aunt, who was named after her grandmother. Even though Dee may not be an African name it is based on custom, tradition, ancestors and the heritage of the Johnson family. Mamma also doesnt show her true feelings of Dees arrival. She replaces her own fears onto Maggie when she anticipates that Maggie will be awed by Dees company. However, Maggies behavioreven her limited use of languageconveys disgust with her sister rather than envy and awe (Tuten 125-28). Mamma expects Maggie will be nervous until after her sister goes: she will stand hopelessly in corners homely and ashamed of the burn scars down her arms and legs, eyeing her sister with a mixture of envy and awe. She thinks her sister has held life always in the palm of one hand, that no is a word the world never learned to say to her (Tu ten 125-28). Dee can be described as selfish and unappreciative because she obviously forgets where she came from. In a sense she forgets who she really is and the kind of household she grew up in. Mammas life growing up was different from the life Maggie and Dee grew up in. Mamma mentions that after second grade, the school was closed down, and because of this she is not educated and cannot read (Walker 110). Critics see Dees education and her insistence on reading to Mama and Maggie as further evidence of her separation from and lack of understanding for her family identity and heritage (Farrell 179-86). Tuten, for instance, argues that, in this story, Walker stresses not only the importance of language but also the destructive effects of its misuse. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ Rather than providing a medium for newfound awareness and for community à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ verbal skill equips Dee to oppress and manipulate others and to isolate herself (Farrell 179-86). Similarly, Donna Winchell writes that Dee tries to force on Maggie and her mother knowledge they probably do not need. She continues, Mrs. Johnson can take an objective look at whom and what she is and find not disillusionment but an easy satisfaction. Simple pleasures-a dip of snuff, a cooling breeze across a clean swept yard, church songs, the soothing movements of milk cows-are enough (Farrell 179-86). Although they were sisters, Dee and Maggie were two very different individuals with different aspects on certain objects such as the quilts and churn top. Maggie and Dee are very different from each other. Maggie is more of a passive individual who is unconfident and ashamed because of the burn scars that are located up and down her arms and legs, but Maggie understands the history behind simple objects, like the quilt, and the importance that it holds, unlike Dee. Dee takes the hand-crafted churn top, which she will apply as a centerpiece for the alcove table (Walker 112-113). Dee only wants these things to show off her African heritage, but Mamma and Maggie actually need these things to survive. Dee doesnt realize the true value of it. Her mother and sister use the churn top everyday by making butter. Dee is only concerned about fashion and the beauty of objects. Dee relates the items with her heritage now, but thought nothing of her heritage in her youth as she was growing up. Dees chase of her heritage is external, wishing to have these different items in order to display them in her home and using them to show off to her friends. Dee wants to keep the items as souvenirs and display them in her home. She wants the items because she understands each to have value, but Dee doesnt understand the deeper meaning behind the quilt or churn top. For example, instead of being used for warmth, she uses the quilt as a symbol of art or fashion to display on her wall. Dee and Mamma have different point of views on the quilts, and this makes their relationship complicated. Dees interpretation of the quilt conflicts with Mammas understanding of the quilts. There are all pieces of dresses Grandma used to wear. She did all this stitching by hand. Imagine! (Walker 113). This line represents that Dee considers the quilt worthless because the quilt is hand-stitched, not machined. Dee plans to show the quilts or Hang them, (Walker 113) unlike Maggie, who will actually put them to everyday use (Walker 113). Mama knows that there is a connection of heritage in Maggie, and she knows that It was Grandma Dee and Big Dee who taught Maggie how to quilt (Walker 113). Mama expresses herself in the climactic scene of the story not through words but through deeds: she hugs Maggie to her, drags her in the room where Dee sits holding the quilts, snatches the quilts from Dee, and dumps them into Maggies lap (Tuten 125-28). Its because Maggie has such a great connection with her heritage that Mama takes the quilts from Dee who held the quilts securely in her arms, stroking them clutching them closely to her bosom (Walker 113) and then hands them to Maggie. Only by reaction does she finally speak and tell Dee to take one or two of the others. Instead of using words, Mamas actions silence the daughter who has used language to control others and separate herself from the community: Mama tells us that Dee turns and leaves the room without a word (Tuten 125-28). Dees past is another reason of why she doesnt understand the importance of her heritage. Mamma remembers Dees childhood and her appreciation of nice things. Dee was not the least upset when their home burned to the ground while she was just a girl, Why dont you do a dance around the ashes? Id wanted to ask her. She had hated the house that much (Walker 110). Dee is misinterpreting her heritage as material goods, as opposed to her ancestors customs and way of life. It could be because she left her hometown to get an education and become a more sophisticated and independent young woman. Dee believes heritage to be as concrete as a quilt on the wall or an old-time butter churn in the alcove. Dee has an understanding that the items are hand made by her ancestors, but remains unaware of the knowledge and history behind them. Mamma knows the traditions behind the quilts and it puts their ancestors memories to everyday use. Unlike Dee, Maggie understands the true meaning of her African heritage, and she believes to put all items to good use. On the other hand, Dee enjoys flaunt ing the beauty of objects instead of using them for their specific use. Through the story Everyday Use Walker presents that heritage is a practiced tradition. People can learn about their heritage and culture from one generation to the next. It is not suddenly picked up. A person who possesses real heritage and culture make use of it every day of their life.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Hamlet views Essay

The essential component to any Elizabethan tragedy is a protagonist with a fatal flaw. In Elizabethan tragedy this is called hamartia. This Latin term translates directly into the word â€Å"flaw† but is usually used to describe an excess of a personality trait – virtue or vice. The protagonist’s fatal flaw pushes the the plot and action of the tragedy forward. It is this tragic flaw, which leads to the eventual downfall of the character, his circumstances, and the denouement of the drama. In examining the bulk of the literature’s protagonists, no other character embodies the essential role of the flawed protagonist like Hamlet. Hamlet’s fatal flaw is his idealism. Only once Hamlet overcomes his idealism is he able to seek his revenge. The climax of the play occurs with Hamlet’s realization that the world is not as it seems and that he must shrug off his idealistic values and avenge his father’s murder Act 3, scene 4. It is within Act 4, that Hamlet carries out his revenge. The issues of love, hate, jealous, incest, power struggle, revenge, and most importantly maturation of the protagonist. These themes are all present in Hamlet, and were theater elements there were not just enjoyed by Elizabethan audiences but also expected. In Shakespeare’s Hamlet, act 4 scene 4, are pivotal within the play. The scene centers around Hamlet’s speech (lines x-x). Hamlet is left alone on stage and reviews the events that occurred to this point in the play and what he must now do. Hamlet begins â€Å"How all occasions do inform against me, / And spur my dull revenge! † He clearly knows that he must, now, take his revenge. He asks himself, and the audience, â€Å"What is a man† and continues that a man should be â€Å"a beast, no more† and exhibit â€Å"god-like reason†. Hamlet holds on to his idealism much of the play but in the end, being born and raised as an Elizabethan, he knows he must not be â€Å" one part wisdom / And ever three parts coward. â€Å" It is honor that is most important to him. He continues â€Å"When honour’s at the stake. How stand I then, / That have a father kill’d, a mother stain’d, / Excitements of my reason and my blood, / And let all sleep? † Hamlet understands that to be a man he must seek carry out his revenge and he does. Act 3 centers around Hamlet speaking like a jealous lover chastising his girlfriend for sleeping with a different man and making their bed â€Å"enseamed†. The Queen is extremely upset and actually asks Hamlet to help her figure out what to do. At this point when Hamlet should have told her to confess, he urges her to stop her relationship with Claudius, â€Å"Not this, by no means, that I bid you do: Let the bloat king tempt you again to bed† (Act III, sc iv). It is in the moment that Hamlet allows his emotion to dominate over his intellect that Claudius was killed. He is consumed by the thoughts of his father’s demise and is haunted by the knowledge that his father’s soul will not be able to rest until his death is avenged. Hamlet willfully concludes, â€Å"My thoughts be bloody or be nothing worth† (Act IV sc iv). It is then that Hamlet finally had the ability to suppress his idealistic nature, and do what is right. The murder is not a well planned scheme and occurs in the heat of the moment. Hamlet, after the murder of Claudius never once wavers in his decision. He has done what is right and believes that â€Å"There is a special providence in the fall of a sparrow† (Act V sc ii). Hamlet is able to do anything but take vengeance upon the man who did away with his father and has taken his father’s place with his mother. The pain which should have caused him to take immediate revenge was replaced by pity for himself. It is Hamlet’s idealistic nature that creates the ultimate theme and driving force behind all the rising action, falling action, and resolution of this tragedy as well as the death of his mother. The way in which Hamlet views his mother, father, and Claudius is finally revealed in Act IV. Once Hamlet is able to be honest about his feelings, he is able to finally seek revenge for his father’s murder. This scene is pivotal to denouement of the play and essential to Hamlet’s transformation from a boy to man who embodies the important qualities which were cherished and expect by an Elizabethan audiences. In Shakespearean tragedies, the protagonist must die and on the way to his death many people die with him. It is the ultimate act of revenge which appeals to the Elizabethan audience and has made Hamlet a timeless classic.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Discuss Dickens treatment of the Victorian concept Essay

Discuss Dickens treatment of the Victorian concept of a gentleman in â€Å"Great Expectations†. Great Expectations is a novel about a boy called Pip and is of him growing up. One day a lawyer turns up at his sister’s house saying he has great expectations of him. A mysterious benefactor is giving money through the lawyer to Pip. Pip spends this money on what he thinks is becoming gentleman i. e. buying new furniture. However towards the end of the novel, when Pip finds out who his mysterious benefactor really is, he realises what a true gentleman is, a man of great principles and, a person with good manners. The novel is written by a much older Pip looking back at his life and being amazed at some of the mistakes he actually made. In Great Expectations, every character has there own opinion of what a real gentleman should be like. Pip, the main character of the novel; while he is still a teenager thinks that a real gentleman should have a lot of money, wear expensive clothes, know how to read and write and should go to a gentleman’s club. Whereas towards the end of the novel, when he is much more grown up, he realises that a true gentleman has good manners and is loyal. Dickens wrote this novel in many sections, which appeared in a newspaper, as the story became so famous the sections were collaborated into a novel. The novel was written in Victorian times, and like many of his novels they were about the times and the attitudes of all people of society. In this novel Dickens’s message to the Victorian people was that to be true gentleman one did not have to be of a rich family or have lots of money; but a true gentleman was loyal, treated others with great respect and had immaculate manners. In modern society we all think that a gentleman should treat others with respect, dress smartly, have excellent manners and be well behaved in public. However some people follow the literal meaning of a gentleman, being that the individual comes from a noble / family. In the novel Pip makes friends with Bently Drummel, who is a gentleman by definition of a dictionary, however what Pip realises a true gentleman is, Bently Drummel is not. There are many things about Bently Drummel that convinces the reader that Bently Drummel is not a true gentleman. Firstly for example he beats his wife, which a true gentleman would never do. A true gentleman would treat a lady with respect at all times. Bently Drummel is only a gentleman because he comes from a rich family his ethics are all completely wrong. He does not lens any money to his friends and he treats them as if they are inferior to him due to his riches. We all know that a true gentleman would never mistreat his friends and would always take great care f them. However on could also argue against these accusations, which are against Bently Drummel and say that he is in fact quite a gentleman. But that all depends upon what one defines a gentleman as. If one says that a gentleman is someone who is very arrogant, and loves himself and his riches more than anyone else then you could say that Bently Drummel is a gentleman However I think in modern day society, and what dickens is trying to put across to the reader is that it is not ones position in society; it is not ones riches that make him a gentleman but his humility, his kindness and his love for his neighbours. In the Victorians times, in which the paper is set, the book as we have said was published in small sections in the newspaper and middle and even lower class people would get to read these newspaper one way or another, so Dickens’s message is not just to the rich or just to the poor but to the whole society. Another example of gentleman by definition and a true gentleman is of Compeyson and Magwitch Magwitch is not rich nor of noble decent, but has good principles, he is Pips mysterious benefactor who sends him money in order for him to become a gentleman, although it may not seem so due to the events early in the novel but Magwitch is kind and caring, as he makes sure that Pip is well looked after. Having said that Magwitch is an escaped convict yet he earns money via an honest living from which he sends money to Pip. Compeyson was Magwitch’s accomplice who ran away with all the money and blamed all the crimes on Magwitch who served the time. Another thing against the Compeyson is that he had very bad principles compared to Magwitch. He conned Miss Havisham into loving him and then and on their wedding day he left Miss Havisham waiting at the altar and ran away with most of her money. This left Miss Havisham devastated she sat I a room with all the clocks stopped at the time of the wedding, she sat their in her wedding gown, very frail obviously because she was not eating well. A true gentleman could never do this to a women and this is highlighted in the way that Magwitch treats women. At the time in which this novel was released in its different sections, Dickens wanted to add enough suspense so that the reader wanted to read the next section and would remember all the previous sections. He added thrill and excitement to the section by introducing a new character relatively in each section, who has there own appearance, is from there own part of society i. e. working class, and who has their own different views and opinions. This is clearly apparent as each character has his own view, for example Estella a beautiful girl, who Pip is deeply in love with tells him that a gentleman dresses smart, has nice shoes and soft hands. IT is clear to see the message that dickens is broadcasting to the people through his novel and is seem to have an effect because it tells all the people the rich and poor that money does not make a gentleman in the eyes of the community so it is better to be happy with what one has and to have good principles and scruples.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Make Use of These Connecting Words and Phrase All Writers Apply

Make Use of These Connecting Words and Phrase All Writers Apply Here is a list of words and phrases that are used to connect the sentences, the ideas and thoughts in any type of essays. Although, to many students, a writing assignment may seem like a very cruel form of torture, writing, in reality, can serve as a very useful tool in developing one’s critical thinking skills, and can help build one’s expertise in using their language. Also, writing enhances one’s ability to communicate effectively, which is a critical and much-needed skill in the workplace. It is a skill that will, to put it bluntly, help people get what they want in life and in their career.  For example, the effective communicator accesses the job interview and lands a good job over the person who isn’t an effective communicator. The same applies to educational writing. When it comes to written communication (especially when writing the major essay types: argumentative essay, or persuasive essay, cause and effect essay, compare and contrast essay or  expository essay), the better the student conveys a point, makes a solid argument, and presents a well-detailed treatise on a certain subject, the more likely they will obtain a high grade on the writing assignment. This is usually accomplished through the use of connection words and phrases. Regardless of the kind of an essay, a student is assigned to write, a working knowledge of connection words and phrases (as well as how to correctly incorporate them into a written assignment) is always advantageous. These can help support a claim, make an argument, help to defend one’s reasoning and especially illustrate cause and effect; they help provide a thorough explanation and can certainly persuade the reader to believe or agree with an argument. Connection/connecting or linking verbs and phrases can illustrate objection or a rebuttal of something (with words like however, but, and on the contrary); they can provide an illustration (for example, for instance), can incorporate transitional phrases for enumeration (first, secondly, next, finally, lastly), and can demonstrate consequence (therefore, consequently, as a result). List of Connecting Words and Phrases Before looking through the list of connecting words and phrases, you may read another article on the similar topic: The Importance of the Transition Words and Phrases Some of these phrases and words begin a sentence, while others are used to connect two separate thoughts – either with the use of a semicolon or well-placed comma, and are therefore inserted in the middle of a sentence. The purpose Connecting words and phrases Example To indicate a contrast in comparison; however; on the contrary; rather; alternatively; however; though; nevertheless; notwithstanding; in spite of this; although; similarly; conversely Writing well is a product of hard work, education, and extensive reading; however, some people are natural-born storytellers. To provide an illustration for example; that is to say; in other words; namely; such as; including; chiefly; mainly; most importantly Prohibition was a terrible, dreadful failure, mainly because it did nothing but make a lot of criminals – namely bootleggers – filthy rich. To extend a point similarly; equally; likewise, furthermore; also; indeed; above all; as well; in addition It has been said that writer Ernest Hemingway had no other interests beyond violence, and sports; and, indeed, he published several books that confirm this observation To demonstrate cause and effect, or a conclusion between two notions therefore; thus; hence; as a result; consequently; this suggests that; in short; this implies; in all There have been recent discoveries that amoebas do not leave behind a carbon footprint; therefore it is virtually impossible to determine exactly how long they have been on Earth. Transitional, to indicate the next step first of all; next; secondly; to begin with; first and foremost; then; finally; ultimately; lastly First of all, Christopher Columbus should not be considered a hero to Americans. Secondly, Columbus was not even the first explorer to discover the Americans. To summarize overall; in sum; to sum it up; in conclusion In conclusion, this essay examined two entirely different – yet effective – methods of teaching math to fifth-graders. Connecting words and phrases are very important while writing an academic paper. If you feel you need assistance with the correct use of connecting words in your essay or you need any other help with your essay writing, contact our friendly support team.

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Huckleberry Finn Rebel or Traitor Professor Ramos Blog

Huckleberry Finn Rebel or Traitor Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, ever since its publication, has been seen as one of the most controversial books in American history. In the American Library Association’s list for the Top 100 Banned/Challenged Books for 2000-2009, the novel placed at number fourteen (Top 100 Banned/Challenged Books: 2000-2009) . Coincidentally, the ALA’s same list for the 1990s also placed The Adventures of Tom Sawyer at number eighty-three (100 Most Frequently Challenged Books: 1990-1999). However, my main focus is to explain not only how much Huckleberry Finn has changed throughout the book but also how society has perceived the character throughout history. When we are introduced to Huck in this novel, he is not doing too bad for a thirteen (maybe fourteen) year old boy. Finn has become rich from his share of the treasure found at the end of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and also lives in a house and is getting an education at school. The two women he lives with, his guardian, the Widow Douglas and her sister, Miss Watson, attempt to civilize Huck and teach him about God and Christianity. Looking back at the beginning of the novel, I have already noticed a couple of interesting parallels – the two women attempted to civilize Huck into what society deemed acceptable, similar to Zitkala-Sa’s experience in the Indian boarding schools. However, it is important to note that Zitkala-Sa’s case had a more severe level of harshness than the attempted civilization for Huck . The second thingmay be a little more obvious Miss Watson tries to civilize Huck in a proper, Christian way yet Watson herself is a slave owner, something that was acceptable in the 1830-40s but would now be considered appalling for anyone, let alone a Christian. The part where everything goes wrong is when Huck’s father, only referred to as Pap, comes into the picture. Pap kidnaps his son and takes him to his cabin in the woods, isolated from society. Huckleberry is then subject to repeated beatings by his father until he cannot take it any more – he fakes his own death and flees to Jackson’s Island where he sees Jim, a black slave owned by Miss Watson who had fled from St. Petersburg after hearing that she was going to sell him for $800. Huck and Jim then leave Jackson’s Island after the former discovers that the town is searching for the latter. What is it that makes Huck change his mind about Jim at this point? Because, keep in mind that beforehand, Huck was perfectly fine with Jim’s status as a slave until now, deciding to help him escape. My answer to this question comes from a quote in the book: â€Å"Before night they wanted to lynch him, but he was gone, you see. Well, next day they found out the nigger was gone† (Twain and Levine). This line is spoken by Judith Loftus, a minor character that Huck has a conversation with shortly before he and Jim leave Jackson’s Island. If this quote is considered as a counterpart to this question, Huckleberry may have wanted to save Jim because he knew him – he did not want his friend to be lynched by the townspeople because of his faked death. Finn could have also felt guilty that the citizens were looking for Jim despite the fact that he had no way of knowing that they would pin his â€Å"murder† on this newly escaped slave. Tuire Valkeakari, in her academic journal Huck, Twain, and the Freedman’s Shackles: Struggling with Huckleberry Finn Today, claims that Jim could also connect with Huck at an emotional level: â€Å"A slave, Jim can relate, at a most personal level, both to the agony generated by uncertainty about a family member’s fate and to the fear of becoming a target of physical violence† (Valkeakari). When the two leave Jackson’s Island, these realizations could perhaps be why Huck no longer sees Jim as a slave. There are multiple scenes in Adventures of Huckleberry Finn where Huck proves his loyalty to Jim after Jackson’s Island: he apologizes to Jim after attempting to trick him into believing that the fog which separated them was just a dream; another time was when Huck lied to a man, saying that a black man was not onboard the raft. As the book progresses, Huck gets his share of life-changing experiences – he is practically adopted by the Grangerfords and then becomes emotionally scarred after witnessing the deaths of all the Grangerford men in a gunfight. Finn also sees a town drunk get shot in cold blood and deals with the Duke and the King, the latter situation also experienced by Jim. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn has been the subject of criticism in two different ways: the first, â€Å"its hero a boy who smoked, loafed, and preferred the company of a runaway slave to Sunday School† (Levine). By the 21st century, the reason changed because the novel continually uses the word â€Å"n†. Even Huckleberry uses thisword throughout the book, so has he really changed? The pivotal moment where I believe Huckleberry truly changes is in the conclusion of the second part: he has the choice of either sending a letter to Miss Watson saying that he knows where Jim is and collecting the reward money for his capture or do nothing. This point in the book is similar to the other ones where Huck proves his loyalty to Jim, so what makes it so different? It is different because not only does Huck choose not to send the letter but he accepts the fact of going to Hell in his vow of freeing his black slave friend: â€Å" ‘All right, then, I’ll go to hell’- and tore it up† (Twain and Levine). In this moment, Huck has now seen Jim as he should truly be seen – as a human being with feelings and not property that can be chained or sold like an animal. It is also safe to say with certainty that God would not have sent Huck to Hell just because he helped free a slave. This is the definitive moment where Huck no longer sees Jim as a nigger. Huckleberry Finn, at the conclusion of the novel, would be seen as a traitor to his state because he helped free a slave. Society today would see him as a rebel who realized the system was wrong and decided to fight against it. This is probably why Huckleberry is not the main controversy associated with the novel as in the past and why the use of â€Å"n† has taken his place. Finn could also be seen as a symbol of America in terms of his journey – while he noticed how atrocious slavery was to the black people, (eventually) so did the United States. As for Jim, he may have achieved freedom but his struggle would undoubtedly continue: â€Å"The character Jim, to whom racial epithets are most often attached, remains a ‘nigger’ at the end of the novel but not a ‘slave’† (Smith). While Huckleberry now saw Jim as a person, other people would not give him that same leisure. In the time of the 1830-40s, black people would always be discriminated against, free or not. Racism against the African American people still continued after the Civil War in the 1860s and even today, people still see black people as an inferior race. If this were not true, The Klan and blackface would be racial blots of America’s past. 100 Most Frequently Challenged Books: 1990-1999. Advocacy, Legislation Issues, 18 July 2017, www.ala.org/advocacy/bbooks/100-most-frequently-challenged-books-1990–1999. Levine, Robert S. Critical Controversy: Race and the Ending of Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. The Norton Anthology of American Literature: Ninth Shorter Edition, Volume 2, W.W. Norton Company, 2017, p. 291. Smith, Cassander L. Nigger or Slave: Why Labels Matter for Jim (and Twain) in Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Papers on Language Literature, vol. 50, no. 2, Spring 2014, p. 2, EBSCO Academic Search Complete. web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewerpdfviewer?vid=6sid=4465e805-38f8-40af-bca0-e179118fce22%40sessionmgr102. Accessed 18 Feb. 2019. Top 100 Banned/Challenged Books: 2000-2009. Advocacy, Legislation Issues, 18 July 2017, www.ala.org/advocacy/bbooks/top-100-bannedchallenged-books-2000-2009. Twain, Mark, and Robert S. Levine. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: â€Å"Chapter XI. The Norton Anthology of American Literature: Ninth Shorter Edition, Volume 2, W. W. Norton Company, 2017, p. 143, 242. Valkeakari, Tuire. Huck, Twain, and the Freedman’s Shackles: Struggling with Huckleberry Finn Today. Atlantis, vol. 28, no. 2, 1 Dec. 2006, p. 6, EBSCO Academic Search Complete . web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=5sid=fb9842de-dd13-4ed7-b764-646d48d671b3%40sessionmgr120. Accessed 18 Feb. 2019.