Wednesday, July 31, 2019
A very good afternoon to the honor judges, Ms Linda and Ms Joane, all my friends and the fellow audience, and especially the organizer of this public speaking competition. My name is Chin Kar Mei, from DHT. Well! This is my pleasure for having a chance to present my speech at this stage. I am here seeking for your attention; my topic is about ? ExcellentCulture in Malaysia.? Hopefully all of you will enjoy for it. Ladies and gentlemen: First and foremost, our 6th Prime Minister, DatoÃ ¶ Seri Najib Razak used to say, ?OneMalaysia should be existed today onwards?. DatoÃ ¶ Seri continued saying that, ? This is the best solution for restructuring our society during the outbreak of a global recession?. What does it mean by One Malaysia concept? One Malaysia concept consists of 8 values. They are culture of excellence, perseverance, humility, acceptance, loyalty, meritocracy, education and the last one, integrity. All of these are prime conditions to reach 1Malaysia. This concept is neit her too hard nor too easy to be achieved.Since Malaysia is being developed, current Prime Minister espoused 1Malaysia concept and it is purposely takes into considerations the interests and aspirations of all communities in moving country forward. Ladies and gentlemen: Malaysia is a multi-racial community. For instance, Malays, Chinese, Indians, Iban, Kadazan and so on. Every Malaysian should understand and tolerate among each other in order to create a harmony place. There is a good example, understanding Islam among Muslims and non-Muslims. Non-Muslims cannot take alcoholic beverages, cannot take pork product and so forth. There is another situation, still could remember, when I was working in hotel last time. I have realized that there was several gangs in my department. They are Malays, Chinese and Indians gang. They were arguing among each other every time just because of small, little things. They were never ever tolerating among themselves. Until once upon a time, there was a severe mistake done by someone else. And because of this, warning letter will be given to everyone unless we able to find out the solution. Therefore, all the 3 gangs finally discussed together regardless the races and we really found the best solution.
In any organization, the manager wears many hats. Their responsibilities go beyond just managing a group of people. On top of managing, they have to be communicators, coaches, and advocates, just to name a few of the many hats. Part of being an effective communicator includes reporting and implanting changes that may come down from upper management. Change can bring out many emotions in people, like anxiety. How a manager handles the change and implements it within their department can either make their people feel good about it, or heighten their concerns (Ã¢â¬Å"Managers And Supervisors: Importance And RoleÃ¢â¬ , 2014). What is the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s role and responsibility in implementing change in the department? When implementing change within a department, there are specific responsibilities that a manager must uphold. First and foremost, it is important for the manager to inform the employees of what is going on and most importantly as soon as possible. When employees sense th at there may be a change, it often causes panic. When the employees arenÃ¢â¬â¢t sure of what exactly is going on, it allows their minds to run wild with all the possibilities and often times they are negative. Therefore, it is important they are given all the necessary information up front before they have time to assume what is going to happen (Scott, 2014). Once all the relevant information has been relayed and the employees understand all the changes that are going to take place, the manager then needs to switch into support mode. They need to be able to support their entire team through the process that is about to unfold. For example, this is important if the change will bring a heavier workload. The manager will need to provide support to the team so that they will adjust to the change as seamlessly as possible. Lastly, overall good management techniques are important when a change is being implemented. Managers should be aware of over and under managing the situation. Also, implementing a rewards program can also help ease the stress of the change (Scott, 2014). How should a managerÃ successfully handle staff resistance to change? A resistance to the change is bound to happen and should be expected from at least a few employees. A managerÃ¢â¬â¢s skills are put to the test when this happens and it is vital that they handle this situation appropriately. Resistance can come in many different forms. For example, there may be an increased number of people quitting, hostility, and in extreme cases, strikes. Any type of resistance can be troublesome for the management teams, which is why it is imperative that it is handled quickly and appropriately. For starters, the management team needs to understand that some resistance is desirable because it will help the change to be more effective. Employees who question the change in a non-malicious manner could ultimately help to refine the plans of change. Secondly, a good manager will realize that not all of their employees will respond the same to the changes and should be treated accordingly. Sometimes the resistance may come because the employees may not understand the purpose of the changes. The fix for this could be as simple as sitting down with those employees that are having trouble adjusting and thoroughly going over everything. This would include explaining why, how, and when the changes will be taking place. Define each step of the change process: assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation The change process includes four steps, assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation. These steps can help make the change process an easier transition. According to Sull ivan and Decker (2009), Ã¢â¬Å"Emphasis is placed on the assessment phase of change for two reasons. Without data collection and analysis, planned change will not proceed past the Ã¢â¬Å"wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t it be a good idea ifÃ¢â¬ stageÃ¢â¬ (Sullivan & Decker, 2009, Ã¢â¬Å"Chapter 5, Initiating and Implementing Change, The Change ProcessÃ¢â¬ ). Change does not have to come from only a problem, it can also come from an opportunity. Once the problem or opportunity has been properly identified, internal and external data can be collected. Many factors will have to be examined, like who would benefit from the changes and the costs associated with the changes. Once all the data has been collected, it is imperative that it gets analyzed. A statistical analysis could prove even more beneficial especially if it is presented visually, with either graphs or charts. Once a direction has been established, the next part in the process can begin. In the planning stage, the who, when, and how of the change are determined and the target area is decided. Those in the targetÃ are should be act ively involved with the planning stage. Doing so will hopefully lessen the chances of resistance later on. In the next stage, which is implementation, the plan is put into motion. There are two different methods for change; changing an individual and changing a group. Information giving is the most common method used in changing an individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ attitudes and values. According to Sullivan and Decker (2009), Ã¢â¬Å"providing information is prerequisite to change implementation, but it is inadequate unless lack of information is the only obstacle effecting changeÃ¢â¬ (Sullivan & Decker, 2009, Ã¢â¬Å"Chapter 5, Initiating and Implementing Change, The Change ProcessÃ¢â¬ ). Just giving information does not give the reason for the change. Another method that can be considered to change individuals is training. This method combines information giving and actual skill practice. As for methods to change groups, Ã¢â¬Å"The greatest influence is achieved when group members discuss issues that are perceived as important and make relevant, binding decisions based on those discussionsÃ¢â¬ (Sullivan & Decker, 2009, Ã¢â¬Å"Chapter 5, Initiating and Implementing Change, The Change ProcessÃ¢â¬ ). Individual and group methods can be combined. Whichever methods are used, everyone involved should feel as though their input is important and be rewarded accordingly. The final step in the process is the evaluation. It is important to monitor the change to ensure that it the presumed benefits are being achieved financially and qualitatively. Although some outcomes may be undesirable, those too must be examined. If there are problems, they can be reevaluated and corrected. Change is never an easy process to go through. Everyone handles it differently and it often comes with feelings of fear and anxiety. This is especially true for organizations as managers play a large role when it comes to implementing the changes. There are many skills that one must possess in order to do this properly and without much backlash. It is always to be expected that retaliation will come from some in the organization, but the managers have the ability to control the extent of it. By going through the ch ange process and spending quality time on each step, retaliation can be kept to a minimum. Managers and supervisors: importance and role. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.change-management.com/tutorial-job-roles-mod4.htmNichols, V. (n.d.). How you should handle resistance to change. Retrieved fromÃ http://www.hrzone.com/feature/people/how-you-should-handle-resistance-change/141253Scott, G. (2014). What Is the Manager Role and Responsibility in Implementing Change Within the Department?. Retrieved from http://work.chron.com/manager-role-responsibility-implementing-change-within-department-26671.htmlSullivan, E.J., & Decker, P.J. (2009). Effective leadership management nursing (7th ed.). Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
According to Business Link Ã¢â¬Å"The database is one of the cornerstones of information technology, and its ability to organize, process and manage information in a structured and controlled manner is key to many aspects of modern business efficiencies.Ã¢â¬ This paper will define database uses, advantages, and disadvantages as well as recommended changes to an Internet database I currently use. The definition of a database is a structured collection of data or records stored on a computer system. The definition of a database management system (DBMS) is Ã¢â¬Å"a collection of programs that enables you to store, modify, and extract information from a databaseÃ¢â¬ (Webopedia, 2011). Ã¢â¬Å"Databases are used just about everywhere including banks, retail, websites, and warehouses. Banks use databases to keep track of customer accounts, balances, and deposits. Retail stores can use databases to store prices, customer information, sales information, and quantity on hand. Websites use databases to store content, customer login information, and preferences and may store saved user input. Warehouses use databases to manage inventory levels.Ã¢â¬ Another example would include a bookseller, such as Amazon.com. Amazon.coms database would include title, author, ISBN, product information, reviews, quantity, and price to name few. Databases are used anywhere that data needs to be stored and easily retrieved. The filing cabinet has been replaced by databases. Advantages of using a DBMS are, reducing the amount of time managing data, the ability to analyze data in various ways, promoting a disciplined approach to data management, and improving the quality and consistency of information. One disadvantage is the cost because more than likely outside help will need to be employed to develop the DBMS, which can become very expensive. Another disadvantage is time, developing a database system is very time-consuming because numerous steps are involved. Different types of DBMSs are available from several vendors and the services offered can vary widely. Microsoft SQL Server and Oracle from OracleÃ Corporation are two examples of DBMSs. In its most basic form, they both store information with the use of tables. Both use queries to sort, search, and analyze data. They use a backup system to save all information in case of a crash of the system. They are web-based so users can access them from anywhere. They could be tailored to meet business needs. They allow multiple users to access and update information while providing security from unauthorized users. Users are granted access to certain features with the use of passwords and permissions. They both offer reporting capabilities. A number of differences exist between these two DBMSs, the first is the cost, Oracle costs are extremely expensive compared to Microsoft SQL Server. Pricing for Oracle is over 100K, whereas Microsoft SQL Server can be purchased for a couple of thousand. Microsoft SQL Server is used for small-medium sizes companies while Oracle can be used for very large companies. Microsoft SQL can support a couple 1000 users while Oracle can support as little as 10 users, upwards to hundreds of thousands users. Microsoft SQL Server is slower over networks compared to Oracle. Microsoft SQL Server is easier to learn and more user friendly. Microsoft SQL Server has a large community for support, while Oracle has very little in comparison. I have been a collector of Cal Ripken Jr. baseball cards for many years, and I have amassed a collection of close to 2000 different Cal Ripken Jr. baseball cards With this many cards it is hard to keep track of what cards I currently own and their value. I needed a database program where I could have access to my collection in one place. I did some research and found Beckett.com offered a database software program called Beckett Collector Connection. Beckett is an industry leader concerning the collection of sport cards. Anyone who is a serious sport cards card collector knows Beckett is the place to go when wanting to know the value of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s collection. Beckett Collector Connection has essentially taken all their price guides, put them in a database, and made them available online. It only cost $20 for the initial software and it is an additional $4.95 a month to get the latest sets and prices downloaded from their website. AÃ collector can list all their cards with ease using BeckettÃ¢â¬â¢s learning wizard. Each card or record shows year, set name, card number, and card name. Other columns provide a place where a collector can list the condition and quantity of a specific card they own. A number of the cards include a picture ensuring the collector has listed the right card. A collector can print one of six different reports, or use the report generator to create a custom report. A collector has the option of using BeckettÃ¢â¬â¢s auction tools, to create, track, and follow up on multiple Internet auctions based on a collectorÃ¢â¬â¢s inventory. I have been using this program for quite some time and have found it very beneficial but at the same time, I have noticed ways the database can be improved. For one downloading the newest prices can be very time- consuming, even though I use DSL it can still take an hour. Another improvement I want is to the ability to list older sets, while they do list some older sets many older sets are not listed and prices are missing as well. Last, I would like to have Beckett offer to track your auctions listing through multiple auction platforms, such as eBay instead of just their own auction platform. In conclusion, one can determine that gathering, storing, processing of information using a database gives a company a distinct advantage. Developing a DBMSs is crucial to a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s productivity, time management and vital to its success. References Business Link. Benefits of Databases. Retrieved from http://www.businesslink.gov.uk/bdotg/action/layer?topicId=1075422967 Graham, AJ. How Are Databases Used In The Real World? eHow.com. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/about_5447556_databases-used-real-world.html Webopedia. (2011). Database Management System. Retrieved from http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/D/database_management_system_DBMS.html
Monday, July 29, 2019
True or False - Essay Example For instance, information from an individual could be given voluntarily or out of torture. On the other hand, corrective justice is concerned with the fair response to an evil deed to a person or a group of people. In corrective justice, the wrongdoer is expected to compensate his/her actions either by returning the stolen goods or paying for the damages caused (Weinrib, 2002). From the three types of justice, corrective justice is the best since it focuses on gain and loss, equality, correlativity of the parties. One of the reasons for choosing correlative justice is the fact that it acknowledges gain and loss. Gain and loss, in this case, refer to the effects on the amount or state of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s resource that result from interactions between two or more parties (Modak-Truran, 2013). A gain is an increase in the resource whereas a loss is the decrease in the same. While procedural justice is focused in how information is gathered, corrective justice focuses on the actual resources that are affected. Corrective justice is, therefore, the best since it advocates for the restoration of the victims possessions before the interaction. The offender should compensate the victim either to restore their initial positions or to raise their status to a set standard. Equality is another reason for qualifying corrective justice as the best. Corrective justice has equality as the point of reference in determining a just action and just treatments. Equality is the status quo of the parties involved that existed before their interaction (Modak-Truran, 2013).In order to determine the position of the equality, before the interaction, gain and loss can be used. For instance, when Party A hits Party B, the situation can be analyzed to determine whether Party A had interfered with Party BÃ¢â¬â¢s right of free from body invasion or if it was an act of self-defense. The correlative nature of the corrective justice is another
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Final Exam - Research Paper Example On the other hand, bblowfish is a symmetric block cipher and operates in 64-bit block size and a variable key length - from 32 bits to 448bits with 16-round Feistel cipher and uses large key-dependent S-boxes. Moreover it encrypts data on a 32-bit processor at the rate of 18 clock cycles/byte and can run in less than 5K of memory. It is easy to implement The algorithm used in RC4 initialization phase is a key scheduling algorithm(KSA). This algorithm takes the secret key K of length l as the input and begins with the initialization of the internal state S to set it as identity permutation and then uses the key K to generate a random permutation. Thus the algorithm can be summed up as Upon initialization, the internal state S would be [0 1 2 3 Ã¢â¬ ¦ N-1]. During the next step, the value of j is calculated as j = (j + S[i] + K[i mod l]) mod N. Upon swapping value in S[i] becomes value in S[j] and vice versa. From this, it is clear that, only way to keep the initial permutation state unchanged is to keep the value of i and j equal. In order to do that, the value of k should be chosen in such a way that, whenever j is calculated using this formula, it always needs to be equal to the value of i. Upon investing the formula, if we make the values within the bracket i.e j = (j + S[i] + K[i mod l]) mod N equal to N+ i, then upon Mod the result will be equal to i. Upon analysis, we can say(in this case): j+i+K[i], since the value of j depends on itself which in turn depends on the previous value of S[i] (=i) we can say that j will increment to a minimum value of i+(i-1) (Except for i=0) for each iteration. Hence 2i-1+K = N+i. Assuming N =256, we can say K should be equal to 257-i except for i=0, in which case it can be either 256 or 0 to achieve the desired result. Now K takes: Answer: It is not possible to perform encryption operations in parallel on multiple blocks of plaintext in DES CBC mode because in
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Application for Head Teacher Position - Essay Example I will achieve this by reviewing and simplifying the customer facing processes (NSW Department of Education and Communities). I have worked in the position of a head teacher for three years. Therefore, I will bring the experiences I have gained working as both a faculty manager and a head teacher. In addition, I have a bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree on Information Technology, which will enable me steer the development of online resources. Getting an opportunity to work as a head teacher will enable me improve, develop, and sustain high quality skills in teaching. The head teacher opportunity will also develop my skills in financial management like operational budgets and using programs like TIPA, BUDDY, and COST IT. Besides the skills gained from my previous experiences, I am very creative and a problem solver. I hope my achievements, nominations, and awards will Illustrate my character and make me a suitable candidate for this position (NSW Department of Education and
Friday, July 26, 2019
Protestantism and Catholicism - Essay Example Other significant concerns expressed by Martin Luther entailed the notion that there were fundamental ideological differences between the religious truths as Martin Luther saw it and the doctrine of the Catholic Church. These differences included the notion of purgatory, particular judgment, devotion to Mary, the intercession of the saints, most of the sacraments, and the authority of the Pope.1 These ideological differences led to a split within the Catholic Church. This split effectively led to the creation of the Protestant Church as well as a difference in the way in which both churches set out to negotiate with the popular culture of the time. This paper will focus on these differences and illuminate the underlying causes of contention. First and foremost, in order to conceptualize the difference between Catholicism and Protestantism with regards to the negotiation of popular culture it is prudent that we discuss the basic tenets of the two religions. Most importantly, the fundamental religious beliefs of Catholics are those that have been derived from the New Testament and are symbolized through the many sacraments. The most fundamental belief is one that entails the notion that there is a holy trinity and the deity consists of three divine persons-God the father, the son and the Holy Ghost.2 Within the Catholic Church there is a central belief that God came into being as a direct result of the incarnation of his Son. Within the Catholic tradition there is an emphasis on sacraments. Essentially, there are seven sacraments. These sacraments include Baptism, Eucharist, Reconciliation, Confirmation, Marriage, Holy Orders and Anointing of the Sick. The Sacraments are essentially ceremonies which highlight what is impo rtant, sacred and significant in the lives of Catholics. Of these sacraments, the Baptism and the Eucharist have special prominence in that the Baptism is the sacramental entry into religious life for Catholics and the Eucharist is the symbolic memorial of the death and subsequent resurrection of Christ. Another important sacrament is that of the Reconciliation wherein Catholics are given absolution from their sins through the process of confession.3 The Protestant Reformation era represents a split within the Catholic Church and the emergence of the Protestant Church as a corrective action for dealing with what Martin Luther and other reformists felt were inherent flaws within Christianity. First and foremost, the official start of the reformation can be seen in 1517 when Martin Luther, an ex-communicated monk, produced his ninety-five theses which delineated his repugnance at the fact that there was a systematic abuse of papal power. This abuse was most evident in the sale of indulgences by Pope Leo X as a means of raising funds for the construction of the St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.4 This action served to infuriate an already furious Martin Luther who was essentially appalled at the fact that the powers afforded the Pope continued to expand and had become such that the Catholic Church not only asserted its influence on the mundane existence of its constituents but its influence was now evident in the determination of the qua lity of after-life afforded to believers. Essentially, his main contention involved the fact that faith had taken a diminished role while good acts were given a more prominent role. The notion of one buying his/her way into heaven was one that disturbed Luther who
Quantitative data analysis report based on an independent analysis of a large data set of regional economic and social indicators from France and Italy (NUTS2) - Statistics Project Example The sample proportion of France indicated mean for participation rates (M= 100.8, SD=1.6) was significant Ã¢â° ¥ high tech employments (M = 4.3, SD =1.4), t(20) = 257.4 p =000. Thus we reject null hypothesis as p The indication from the Tables, Italy, is that, at difference of (m = 95.2, sd = 3.8), t(18) = 110 p At 97.7% variance of GDP (2008) the is accounted for the linear combination, with a positive linear coefficient correlation of .99. The bivariate coefficient indicates p There is a highly linear correlation at R2 = 98.2 % of the variance of GDP in the linear equation. P-value GDP of a country is market value per year of all goods and services produced in the country. The value does not include the goods and services produced in other countries (Tucker, 2013). Thus the GDP of a country can measure of the wealth of a nation. The Western Europe countries of Italy and France have a high potential in high tech sectors in that France has a high tech patent rights that contribute a lot in the GDP of the France, where as Italy has more sectors that employ more people in high tech sectors. The education plays the main part in developing the cognitive, physical and social skills. The 4 year old kid develop skills by participating in schools activities thus increasing the enjoyment in leisure, reading books, understanding jokes and playing games (OÃ¢â¬â¢Sullivan,
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Clinical Examination - Case Study Example History: This is a 56-year-old male who works in a travel agency. He is a smoker for years, and he is still smoking about 10 cigarettes per day. In this presentation, he started feeling breathless with his usual activity about a week back. He stays near his office, and normally he goes to work on foot. Previously he was able to walk to his office in a slower pace without much of discomfort; however, for the last 1 week or so, he is trouble covering this small distance without taking rest midway, and the distance for taking rest is decreasing day by day. Although with rest, the breathlessness seems to wane down, he is worried due to the fact that his feet are swollen, and this time the grade of swelling is much more than earlier ever. EHehHe has noted also that he is coughing a little with expulsion rusty sputum of small quantities. His sleep is disturbed since he can no longer sleep on the bed with usual two pillows that he uses, and of late, he needs to use 4 pillows which makes him reclined on the bed. Over the top of that he can sense his heart is beating faster, and last night he had to wake up from whatever sleep he was having with sudden episodes of acute breathlessness just after midnight. He is feeling fatigued, tired, and exhausted. His appetite is poor, he is having a bloated sensation in the abdomen, and heaviness in the upper part of his abdomen, more on the right hand side. From his previous visit, the doctor asked him to quit smoking, and he did not comply, and now he knows that like previous such episodes, he is going to have another now, and so he decided to visit the clinic. He has past history of congestive heart failure with ischaemic heart disease. He has no evident drug allergies or drug interactions. He is on diuretic and digitalis. He has associated hypertension. On interrogation, there is no suggestive history of weight loss or blood loss; however, he has gained some weight. Clinical Examination: On inspection, he was obviously with discomfort, and respiratory distress was obvious with nasal flaring, retraction of the suprasternal notch, moderate use of accessory muscles of respiration, and intercostal retraction. His vital sign examination revealed him to be puffy, with pallor. There was no cyanosis, jaundice, but he had grade 2 clubbing and +4 pitting edema in both the ankles and pretibial regions. There was no cervical lymphadenopathy, thyroid was not palpable, face was puffy. On examination, he had harsh vesicular breath sounds throughout the lung fields, with features of laboured breathing at a rate of 22 per minute at rest. The lungs were otherwise clear except at the bases, there were fine moist rales. There was no dullness to percussion in any lung area including the bases. His pulse rate was 92, blood pressure 100/92, peripheral pulses were equal volume on both the sides with carotids being palpably normal. The jugular venous pressure was elevat ed in clinical examination with distention up to 12 cm from the suprasternal notch on a 45 degree recline on the examination couch. The apical pulse was located in the seventh intercostal space 1.5 cm lateral to the left midclavicular line, and with close inspection, the apical impulse was visible. There was obviously evidence of cardiomegaly, but it was difficult to discern whether there was any
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Is Criminal Behavior Determined Biologically - Essay Example Some do believe that crime has a genetic disposition but I believe that any person, irrespective of their biological or genetic background, when faced with certain stress factors can commit crime. Since the very beginning of the 20th century, several social researchers have reported that Blacks tend to commit more crimes when compared to their White or Asian counterparts (Piquero and Barme,2008). In fact official statistics also support this claim since and the racial minorities are regarded to be more genetically disposed towards crimes than other groups. In the recent years the field of behavioral genetics has conducted massive studies to understand whether genes and crimes are related or not. Race studies, adoption studies and twin studies have suggested that anti-social behavior is linked to the genes. Experts believe that since things such as gambling, drug abuse, risk-taking behavior and pleasure-seeking show evidence of genetic influence and since all of these behaviors have the potential to initiate crimes; one may suggest that crime and genes maybe closely related (Baker et al, 2006). In fact the field of forensic psychiatry supports the idea that chronic criminals h ave mutations in their genes which are hereditary in nature. According to this these mutations have an effect on the autonomic nervous system which in turn reduces an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to learn normal social forces in inhibiting criminal behavior (Mednick and Finello,1983). On the other hand, with regards to the Nature versus nurture theory, I feel that nurturing has profound influence on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior. The environment and stress factors that an individual is exposed to, has a great deal of influence on his behavioral outcomes. Some of these stress factors are poverty and drug abuse. The constant association of Black minorities to commit crimes is overrated. In fact,
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Apple Inc. in 2010 - Essay Example As such, Jobs turned the focus of Apple towards producing and developing non-PC compliments and applications. This was so unbelievably effective that by 2010, over 60% of all of AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s revenue was derived from non-PC devices; such as the iPad and the wildly successful iPhone (Bland 58). Ultimately, the Apple brand has a litany of different competitive advantages. One of the first of these is with respect to the seamless level of integration that exists between the hardware and software that Apple provides to its consumers. Taking same song and/4 Microsoft as an example, it can quickly be seen that the designer of the hardware and the designer of the software are oftentimes two different entities; oftentimes creating a situation in which the level of integration between these two leaves something to be desired. However, due to the fact that iOS operates on a native platform utilizing hardware that was designed for no other function but to perform iOS, this represents a noted strength with respect to the degree and extent Apple continue to exert a competitive advantage on the market (Beech 47). Another noted competitive advantage is with respect to AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s youth and simplicity of use. Although it is true that competitors have come a long way in recent years in seeking to simplify and improve their interface, Apple has long represented an intuitive design that leaves hardly any room for confusion on the part of the user. Additionally, and perhaps most importantly, it should be noted that AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s sleek and appealing design is one of the competitive advantages that has driven the firm to the level of success that had experienced over the past decade. Ultimately, if it were not for the fact that AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s products were sleek, appealing, and even Ã¢â¬Å"sexyÃ¢â¬ , it is doubtful that the company could experience anywhere near the degree of success that it has currently enjoy. Finally, another competitive advantage that Apple
Monday, July 22, 2019
Segmentation method used by LOreal Essay In Ã¢â¬Å"The Crisis, No. 1,Ã¢â¬ an article written by Thomas Paine in 1776, there are many literary tools. This Article speaks of how the colonists need to stand up and fight for themselves against Britain and gain their independence. Three forms of language that Paine uses in order to convince the colonists that this is necessary were pathos, diction, and logos. The most prevalent literary tool, also form of rhetoric in this document was Pathos as Paine uses a lot of emotion to connect with his target audience. Ã¢â¬Å"I call not upon a few, but upon all; not on this state or that state, but on every state,Ã¢â¬ shows how he uses pathos to arouse a feeling of patriotism or unity. Paine obviously tries to connect with the audience through feelings of connection with each member of their society. He also often uses the word Ã¢â¬Å"weÃ¢â¬ to show how he is just one of them, another simple colonist who wants to break free from Britain. He ensues fear in the colonists through God, the devil, and how they would be slaves if the British kept ruling over them. Paine says that if they kept acting so naive then the British would come over and kill them. Another obvious literary tool that Paine uses is diction. He uses many thought provoking words that allow people to think more about the topic at hand. Ã¢â¬Å" suffer the misery of devilsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ represents a form of PaineÃ¢â¬â¢s diction. The word misery evokes great emotion in regular people as they could have been through some form of misery, such as being under control of Britain, giving them a greater understanding of the word. To go even further, it being the Ã¢â¬Å"misery of devilsÃ¢â¬ makes it an even greater misery and more disturbing to the public, giving them thoughts of what a devilÃ¢â¬â¢s true misery might be. The use of the word Ã¢â¬Å"sufferÃ¢â¬ in this quote, as well, brings even greater understanding and fear as it is a harsh word. All of these words together bring a jarring tone of misery, giving great emotion and feeling to the colonists. The final and least evident literary structure Paine uses in this document is logos as there are few forms of logic. Throughout the writing, there are a few times where Paine uses actual reason over emotions, but enough times that it stimulates thought on the colonistsÃ¢â¬â¢ part. Ã¢â¬Å"We did not make a proper use of last winter, neither could we, while we were in a dependent state. However, the fault, if it were one, was all our own; We have none to blame but ourselves,Ã¢â¬ shows PaineÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts on an actual problem that happened. He speaks about how it was the colonists, including his own, fault for what happened, no one elses, stating the blunt truth. This makes the colonists think and recount on what they have done and what they can do to fix it. Overall, Paine uses many literary forms in this document, allowing the colonists to think more about what they should do, and evoking emotions of disgust and hatred toward Britain. This article pushed the colonists more toward wanting to be free of Britain and to not be slaves to them. They wanted to break away and gain their independence more due to this document and PaineÃ¢â¬â¢s way of writing this. Al of the language he uses, from pathos to diction and to logos, Paine ensued hope into the colonists for a better, more free future.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Gibbs-Donnan Effect on Resting Membrane Potential How the Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium conditions and diffusion through a semipermeable membrane are involved in creating the resting membrane potential Introduction The resting membrane potential (RMP) is an electrical potential difference in cells, occurring across their plasma membranes. The cytoplasm of the cell is electrically negative in comparison to the surrounding extracellular fluid, this difference in electrical charge gives rise to the RMP. The RMP is essential for the functioning of many electrically excitable cells including, neuronal cells, smooth and skeletal muscle cells, as well as cardiac myocytes, which through electrical impulses control the contractility of the heart. During this essay the generation of the resting membrane potential will be explored, including the effects of the Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium conditions, the structure and function of the plasma membrane, and how, with the diffusion of ions through a semi permeable membrane they give rise to the RMP. (Levy, N. et al.2006) Plasma Membrane The plasma membrane asserts tight control over the interstitial environment of the cell, this is achieved through the formation of a phospholipid bilayer containing protein constituents (ref). Phospholipids are distributed into two leaflets within the bilayer, with the hydrophobic portions facing inwards and the hydrophilic tails of the phospholipids facing the aqueous environment, the presence of phospholipids give the membrane its capacitance. Integral membrane proteins and ion channel proteins span the length of the membrane, like that of the Na+-K+ pump and Sodium-Potassium leak channels discussed later, which aid in the conductance of the cell membrane. The inter and extracellular surfaces of the membrane are negatively charged, due to the presence of acidic phospholipids and the anionic nature of proteins at biological pH, this negative charge on the outer membranes with respect to extra and intracellular fluid is known as the zeta potential, which causes the formation of a sma ll electrical field (ref); This electrical field works to achieve electroneutrality with opposing charged particles, and by doing so aids in the formation of concentration gradients. Changes to surface charges within the plasma membrane, such as ionic concentrations, can therefore effect the resting membrane potential and the ability of a cell to reach threshold (Sperelakis, N. 1998). Concentration gradient and Electrical Potential To understand how the flow of ions contribute to the RMP, the formation of a concentration gradient and electrical potential must first be understood. Molecules diffuse from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration, if two aqueous compartments separated by a membrane were formed, containing equal concentrations of the X molecule then no diffusion would occur between compartments (Figure 1). However if the concentration of X increased in compartment A, then the ion would flow down its concentration gradient into compartment B until equilibrium is reached between compartments. However diffusion is more complexed in biological compartments as ions are found in the form of cations and anions. If an X+ion was placed in compartment A, which contained a higher concentration of X+than compartment B, then X+ would again flow down its concentration gradient into compartment B, however X+ now also flows against its concentration gradient back into compartment A, due to th e electrical potential difference across the membrane, generated by the loss of cations from compartment A, causing an increase in negativity, and an increase in X+in compartment B, increasing electrical charge opposing cations (Figure 2); This movement of ions causes a potential difference to arise between compartments, increased movement of X+ down its concentration gradient, increases the potential difference, and decreases the ability of X+ to move against its electrical gradients, thus an equilibrium is reached between the concentration gradient and electrical gradient, known as the equilibrium potential (Aidley, D.1989). Gibbs-Donnan Equilibrium The cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells contain permeable ions as well as many impermeable ionised molecules that cannot penetrate the cell membrane, such as proteins, nucleic acids and glycoproteins. Many of these intracellular molecules are negatively charged at physiological pH, causing a notable effect on the concentration gradient and electrical potential of permeable cations and anions across the plasma membrane. The effect of impermeable intracellular anionic molecules therefore influences the resting membrane potential, this is known as a Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium. Again consider two aqueous compartments separated by a semi permeable membrane, compartment A contains Na+ and proteins (Pr-), compartment B contains Na+ and Cl- (Figure 3a). The semi permeable membrane is permeable to Na+, Cl- and Water but impermeable to Pr-. Compartment A and B contain 0.1 molar solutions of Na protinate and NaCl respectively, as the concentration of Cl- is higher in compartment B it diffuses down its concentration gradient into compartment A, this is turn causes the creation of an electrical potential as compartment A increases in negativity due to the anionic properties of Cl-, prompting a flux of K+ down its electrical gradient from compartment B to A. Equilibrium will eventually occur between compartments so that the concentration of Na+ and Cl- are equal (Figure 3b): [Na+]A[Cl-]A= [Na+]B[Cl-]B This is known as Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium conditions (Sperelakis, N.1998). However it must be noted from the equations that only the permeate ions satisfy the gibbs-donnan equilibrium conditions, the impermeable Pr- are not included as they are unable to diffuse and reach equilibrium (Sperelakis, N.1998). Applying the Nernst equation for either Na+ or Cl- results in a negative electrical potential, this is due to the impermeable protein ions in chamber A (Sperelakis, N.1998), these negative impermeable intracellular anions therefore contribute to the negativity of the cytoplasm in relation to the extracellular fluid, contributing to the resting membrane potential (Donnan, F). Another property of Gibbs-Donnan equilibria should be noted, looking at figure 3b it can be seen that the net concentration of NaCl in chamber A is greater than that of chamber B, this is due to the presence of protein anions in chamber A when establishing electrochemical equilibrium between ions, and is a general property of Gibbs-Donnan equilibria (Levy, N. et al.2006). Finally it is important to mention the equilibrium state of water, as previously mentioned chamber A contains a higher concentration of ions than chamber B, therefore there is a large osmotic gradient between the two chambers; This leads to a flux of water from chamber B to A, however, the osmotic effects of water influx on chamber A acts to dilute ion concentrations building up within the chamber, therefore hydrostatic pressure in chamber A would be insufficient to oppose water influx, leading to a depletion of water and NaCl ions from chamber B (Sperelakis, N.1998); However this situation does not resemble true Gi bbs-Donnan equilibrium conditions, where by the build up of osmotic pressure in chamber A would resist the further osmotic influx of water, resulting in swelling of the chamber, if it were to be enclosed, such as a living cell (Sperelakis, N.1998). If unopposed gibbs-donnan equilibrium would cause the cytoplasm of living cells to have an osmotic pressure greater than that of the surrounding extracellular fluid, as water enters cells, control over cell volume may be lost (Sperelakis, N.1998). However this is not the case due to the cells ability to transport ions (Levy, N. et al.2006). Ion transport The resting membrane potential within skeletal muscle cells is around -80mV, this is due to the differing ion concentrations between the cytoplasm and surrounding extracellular fluid (ref), this difference in ion concentrations is maintained by the active transport of ions against there electrochemical gradient, powered by metabolic energy (ref). The ion pump of most importance to preserving potential difference across the cell membrane is the Na+/K+ATPase, this pumps out three Na+ in exchange for two extracellular K+, through the hydrolysis of a membrane bound ATPase, this ratio of 3:2 leaves the cytoplasm negative in respect to the extracellular fluid, and is therefore termed an electrogenic pump (Huang, F.et al.2009). Although the Na+/K+ATPase is responsible for only a small amount of the RMP between 12-16mV in skeletal myoblasts (Sperelakis, N.1998), overtime inhibition can lead to lack of cell excitability due to the accumulation of small depolarisations. Ion Diffusion To understand how Na+, K+ diffuse across the plasma membrane causing the RMP, their intra and extracellular concentrations must be established (Figure 4). Each ion is capable of establishing a RMP, therefore the potential depends on several factors, the permeability of the membrane to each ion, the intra and extracellular concentrations of each ion and the polarity of the ions (Guyton and Hall.2000). Firstly if the membrane is only permeable to a certain ion then that ion will be solely responsible for the generation of the RMP, for example, in a nerve fibre K+ concentration is greater in the cytoplasm than the extracellular fluid, if the membrane were only permeable to K+, then K+ would diffuse down its concentration gradient into the extracellular fluid until opposed by its electrical gradient, this would leave the cytoplasm with a negative charge of around -94mV with respect to the extracellular fluid, thus K+ would be responsible for a resting membrane potential of -94mV, as this is the Nernst potential for K+ (Guyton and Hall.2000). However the RMP cannot be caused by one ion alone, as the nerve cells has a RMP of -90mV, and the Nernsts potentials for K+ and Na+ are -94mV and +61mV respectively, therefore if the RMP was caused by one univalent ion it would be equal to that of their Nernst potential (Guyton and Hall.2000). Due to the Nernst potential of K+, it can be assumed that this ion is the major contributor to the RMP, the cytoplasmic concentration of K+ is 35times higher than that of its extracellular concentration, and it diffuses through the membrane via Potassium-Sodium leak channels in which its is 100 times more permeable to than Na+ (Guyton and Hall. 2000). However Na+ also contributes to the RMP by low amounts of Na+ diffusing through the Potassium-Sodium leak channels, this small amount of diffusion leads to a ratio of 0:1 Na+ in the cytoplasm to the extracellular fluid, giving a Nernst potential of +61mV (Guyton and Hall. 2000). Using the Nernst potentials for Na+ and k+ in theGoldman-Hodgkin-Katz equationtheir contribution to the RMP can be established, this results in an internal membrane potential of -86mV (Guyton and Hall. 2000). The remaining -4mV comes from the contribution of the previously mentioned electrogenic Na+-K+ pump, leading to a RMP of -90mV in nerve fibres (Guyton and Hall. 2000). Conclusion To conclude, the RMP arises due to a combination of several factors most of which have been covered in the preceding discussions. The cell membranes structural properties allow for the capacitance and conductance of electrical charges, as well as the generation of electrical fields due to the negatively charged outer membrane, this works to aid in the formation of concentration gradients by which ions flow. In the presence of ionic species which are unable to permeate the cell membrane, such as anionic intracellular proteins, a Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium occurs, in which the distribution of permeable ions favour the intracellular environment due to the presence of impermeable anionic molecules, this disruption of ionic concentrations across the plasma membrane coupled with the presence of impermeable anionic molecules, brings about a negative intracellular environment, and thus a potential difference across the membrane. However in a closed system such as the eukaryotic cell, the Gibbs -Donnan equilibrium leads to a greater intracellular osmotic pressure, if unopposed this would lead to a loss of control over cell volume, therefore ion transporters are in place to dissipate ion concentration, like that of the Na+-K+ ATPase. The exchange ratio of 3:2 potassium for sodium respectively, performed by the Na+-K+ ATPase also contributes to the electronegative intracellular environment, and thus the resting membrane potential. The major cause of the RMP is however down to the diffusion of potassium into the extracellular fluid via Sodium-Potassium leak channels, coupled with the low extracellular diffusion of sodium and the aforementioned Na+-K+ ATPase and Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium conditions, the resting membrane potential is formed. References Sperelakis, N. 1998. Cell Physiology Source Book. Second edition. Californa: Academic Press. Aidley, D. 1989. The Physiology of Excitable Cells. Third Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Levy, N. et al. 2006. Principles of Physiology. Fourth edition. Philadelphia: Elsevier Mosby. Huang, F. el al. 2009. Distribution of the Na/K pumps turnover rates As a function of membrane potential, temperature, and ion concentration gradients and effect of fluctuations.Journal of Physical Chemistry B113(23), pp. 8096-8102.
Local Safeguarding Children Board Social Work Essay Physical abuse: This is any form of harm caused to the body, which may include one or more episodes of aggressive behavior, usually resulting in physical injury with possible damage to internal organs, sense organs, the central nervous system etc. Sexual abuse: This is when a sexual act is carried out without the consent or understanding of the service user involved. This can include sexual penetration of any part of the body, touching inappropriate parts of the body without informed agreement, sexual exploitation and/or threats regarding sexual activity. Emotional / psychological abuse: service users being bullied, controlled, intimidated or taken advantage of . Service users needs being ignored, reports of shouting, screaming, swearing, scared of raised voices, distressed, being teased, being humiliated, un respected, not being given choice, opinion, Ã dignity, privacy, being undermined. Financial abuse: This can be the case when a third party is controlling or spending a service users money. Not being made aware of their own finances, family controlling service users money and not making it available for the service user to use, control of their finances being taken away even if able to deal with them, sudden changes in the service users will, personal belongs going missing, unusual spending patterns, others moving into the service users property. | Institutional abuse: This can occur in a care home, nursing home, acute hospital or in-patient setting and can be any of the following For example, being made to do things not of the service users own free will, i.e. under duress, being forced into acts they are not compliant with (or being forced into behaviour they are not happy with) such as set meal times, set bedtimes, freedom restricted. Self neglect: This is when a service user neglects their own basic needs, such as personal care not eating/drinking, not taking medication, neglecting personal hygiene, neglecting appearance. Neglect by others: This can occur when a third party neglects a service user, whether intentionally or via oversight. Neglect can involve not catering for the service users basic needs such as nutritional needs, healthcare/hygiene needs, leaving a service user without adequate finances, neglecting medication needs. Identify the signs and/or symptoms associated with each type of abuse The indicators or warning signs of abuse can be clues that something is happening in the life of the service user that should be looked into. Some indicators are obvious signs of abuse. Other indicators are subtle, requiring careful observation. Signs/symptoms of: Physical abuse Bruises, Burns, Cuts or scars, marks left by a restraint, imprint injuries (eg., marks shaped like fingers, thumbs, hands, belts or sticks), missing teeth, bald spot in hair (from pulled hair) , eye injuries, broken bones ,sprains, abrasions or scrapes, sudden onset of psychosomatic complaints, sudden difficulty walking or sitting. Sexual abuse unusual sexual behaviour, blood or marks on underclothes, recurrent genital/urinary infections, loss of confidence, lack of interest in appearance, sleeping problems, feeling depressed, frequent complaints of abdominal pain. Emotional/Psychological abuse changes in the way affection is shown, sudden onset of nightmares, changes in sleep patterns, difficulty sleeping, sudden regression to childlike behaviors (i.e., bed-wetting, thumb-sucking), cruelty to animals, sudden fear of a person or place, depression, withdrawal, or mood swings any unexplained change in behaviour. Financial abuse unpaid bills, no money for food, clothing, or medication, unexplained withdrawal of money from someones bank account, family member or representative refuses to spend money on the adults behalf, possessions disappear, family member or another person forces an adult to sign over Power of Attorney against their ownÃ will. Institutional abuse Inability to make choices or decisions, not being offered an advocate when needed, no awareness of own rights, agitation if routine broken, not person centred, care plans not available to service user, strict times for routines which MUST be adhered to, carer/company using policy and procedure as a reason for not doing something for the service user without making an effort to find another way to do it, lack of personal clothing or possessions, denial of visitors or phone calls, lack of privacy, lack of adequate procedures (e.g. for medication, financial management, controlling relationships between staff and service users, poor professional practice, high number of complaints, accidents or incidents. These are all signs that may be shown when institutional abuse is occurring. Self neglect Signs shown when self-neglect is happening to a service user are poor personal hygiene, no food in the cupboards or fridge, rapid weight loss Neglect by others When services users are being neglected by others signs that this is happening may be, they become ill, hungry, cold, dirty, injured, deprived of their rights and rapid weight loss may become evident. Describe the factors that may contribute to a service user being more vulnerable to abuse Vulnerable people may be more susceptible to abuse when carers have made changes to their lives that they are not comfortable with, when there is no family to support them, when they have more than one carer supporting them, when they do not know how/where to make a complaint, when they need more care than they are currently receiving, when their carers become dependent on alcohol or drugs, when living in housing which has no adaptations, are socially isolated or are not aware of their rights. 2. Know how to respond to suspected or alleged abuse Explain the actions to take if there are suspicions that an service user is being abused I would firstly observe the service user and if I became suspicious that he/she was being abused I would ask if they are okay. I would next inform my line manager of my concerns and discreetly document my concerns, but I would not ask the service user leading questions. Explain the actions to take if an service user alleges that they are being abused If a service user alleges that they are being abused I would need to stay calm, Listen very carefully, ensure that he/she is not in any immediate danger, call for emergency services if urgent medical / police help is required and be aware that medical and forensic evidence might be needed, encourage the person not to wash or bathe in a major incident of abuse as this could disturb medical/forensic evidence. I would next tell the person that they did the right thing in telling me, express concern and sympathy about what has happened, reassure that the information will be taken seriously and give information about what will happen next, let the service user know that they will be kept involved at every stage; that they will be told the outcome and who will do this. Give the service user contact details of somebody that is in a position to help further so that they can report any further issues or ask any questions that may arise. Next I would explain that I must tell my Line Manager, t hen inform my Line Manager of the situation immediately and explain what I have been told along with my concerns. Identify ways to ensure that evidence of abuse is preserved I would begin by making a written record of messages (e.g. answer-phone) to ensure they are not lost (including the date and time and sign them), ensure written records (notes, letters, bank statements, medication records etc.) are kept in a safe place. If this involves physical abuse I would not tidy up, wash clothes, bedding, other items, or try to clear/tidy anything up. I would try not to touch anything unless I have to for the immediate wellbeing of the service user if I have to I would then make a record of what I have done. If any sexual abuse has been committed I would discourage the service user from washing, drinking, cleaning their teeth or going to the toilet until the police are present. I would then try to ensure that no one else enters the premises (apart from medical staff or necessary people in positions of authority until the police arrive. I would contact my Line Manager to try to ensure that the alleged perpetrator does not have any contact with the service user, record any physical signs or injuries using a body map or hand drawing and write a description of any physical signs or injuries including size, shape, colour etc. I would lastly sign and date my notes and any other records I have made. 3. Understand the national and local context of safeguarding and protection from abuse Identify national policies and local systems that relate to safeguarding and protection from abuse No secrets (Department of Health2000) Safeguarding of Vulnerable Adults policy, (SOVA) Care Quality commission (CQC) Mental Capacity Act Independent safeguarding authority (ISA) National occupational standards General social care commission In safe hands Local safeguarding children board Explain the roles of different agencies in safeguarding and protecting service users from abuse No secrets Provides guidance to local agencies that have a responsibility to investigate and take action when a vulnerable adult is believed to be suffering from abuse. It offers a structure and content for the development of local inter-agency policies, procedures and joint protocols which will draw on good practice nationally and locally; and encourages partnership working between all statutory, voluntary and private agencies that work with vulnerable adults. P.O.V.A List The Care Standards Act 2000 introduced a list for the protection of vulnerable adults known as the POVA list which listed care workers who were considered unsuitable to work with vulnerable adults. Section 82(1) of the Act provides that a person who provided care for vulnerable adults must refer a care worker to the Secretary of State if the provider had dismissed a care worker on the grounds of misconduct which harmed or placed at risk of harm a vulnerable adult. Every child matter Every Child Matters, the governments vision for childrens services was published in September 2003 as part of the response to the death of Victoria Climbie. It proposed reshaping childrens services to help achieve the following five key outcomes for children and young people: Be healthy, stay safe, enjoy and achieve, make a positive contribution, achieve economic well-being. It focuses on supporting families and carers and prevent them reaching crisis point and prevent child abuse. Care standards act 2000 The Care Standards Act 2000 came into effect in April 2002, replacing the Residential Homes Act 1984 and the Residential Homes Amendment Act 1991. The Act set up a new system of national minimum standards for services It established a major regulatory framework for social care to ensure high standards of care and will improve protection of vulnerable people. Implementation led to the establishment of the independent National Care Standards Commission (NCSC). Quality Care Commission Established through the Care standards Act, the care quality commission aim is to promote improvements in care via its triple functions of inspection, regulation and review of all social care services. It provides a comprehensive overview of social care in England and works at a local level, at a national level, and across all sectors. Regular reviews of social care provision are published. General Social Care Council (GSCC) The Care standards Act also established the GSCC, the first ever UK-wide codes of practice for social workers and employers were launched in September 2002. It is the regulatory body for the social care workforce in England. Their codes of practice provide a clear guide for all those who work in social work, setting out the standards of practice and conduct workers and their employers should meet. They are a critical part of regulating the workforce and helping to improve levels of professionalism and public protection. Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act (2006) barring scheme The Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act (2006) introduced a new vetting and barring scheme for those who work with children and vulnerable adults. The scheme was launched in autumn 2008 and replaced the Protection of Vulnerable Adults (POVA) arrangements. The scheme covers health and social care services. All new job applicants who will be working with children or vulnerable adults must have a Criminal Records Bureau (CRB disclosure) which gives prospective employers information about any criminal records history guiding their decision on the applicants suitability to work with children or vulnerable adults. The Independent Safeguarding Authoritys (ISA) role is to help prevent unsuitable people from working with children and vulnerable adults. We assess those individuals working or wishing to work in regulated activity that are referred to us on the grounds that they pose a possible risk of harm to vulnerable groups. There are two principal routes by which referrals are made to the ISA. Firstly, when a person applies for ISA registration, any convictions or cautions which are considered relevant would trigger a referral. The other way a referral would be made is where an employer or an organisation, for example, a regulatory body, has concerns that a person has caused harm or poses a future risk of harm to children or vulnerable adults. In these circumstances the employer or regualtory body must make a referral to the ISA. Local Safeguarding Children Board (LSCB) Under the Children Act 2004, each local authority is required to set up a Local Safeguarding Children Board (LSCB). The legislation followed concern over high profile instances of child abuse, such as the Victoria Climbie case.Ã LSCBs are responsible for local arrangements for protecting children and young people. They provide inter-agency guidelines for child protection Where someone has concerns relating to anyone who holds a position of trust or responsibility for children or young people, these should be discussed with and reported to the Local Authority Designated Officer (LADO). 3.3 Identify reports into serious failures to protect individuals from abuse I have identified two separate reports into serious failures to protect individuals from abuse (below). The first is a link to the tv documentary Panorama and the second is an article reported in the daily mail on 23 November 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b011pwt6 The attached link from the BBC Panorama programme show how on the top floor of a special hospital, locked away from their families and friends, a group of men and women are subjected to a regime of physical assaults, systematic brutality, and torture by the very people supposed to be caring for them. The victims are some of the most vulnerable in society the learning disabled, the autistic, and the suicidal. In a Panorama Special, Paul Kenyon exposes the truth about a gang of carers out of control, and how the care system ignored all the warning signs. Daily Mail article printed 23/11/11 by Daniel Martin, Whitehall Correspondent Cruelty of the carers: Damning report into home help for the elderly finds neglect so appalling some wanted to die These small acts of cruelty are being enacted, possibly unthinkingly, every day Cancer victim, 76, had to struggle to kitchen to heat up a meal because it was claimed health and safety rules meant home helpers could not operate a microwave Another patient, her 90s, put to bed at 2.45pm Read more:Ã http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2064957/Elderly-people-abused-carers-Neglect-bad-pensioners-wanted-die.html#ixzz23Xe5Hjrp Identify sources of information and advice about own role in safeguarding and protecting service users from abuse My company policies and procedures will outline my specific work role regarding safeguarding and protecting service users from abuse and the mandatory yearly safeguarding of vulnerable adults training will make me aware of the legislations dedicated to abuse, and my role in safeguarding vulnerable adults. 4. Understand ways to reduce the likelihood of abuse Explain how the likelihood of abuse may be reduced by: Working with person centred values: When taking a person centered approach the carer would be working with the service users, discussing their needs and preferences for care. This approach would enable the service user to gain trust in the carer, by having a caring person who they can talk to. The carer would then gain a deeper understanding of the service users preferences and beliefs. Thus, empowering the service user, upholding their rights and beliefs and reducing the risk for abuse. Read more:Ã http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_adopting_a_person_centred_approach_which_offers_choices_and_upholds_rights_can_empower_an_individual_and_help_to_reduce_the_likelihood_of_abuse#ixzz23u4FTLNw Encouraging active participation Encouraging active participation builds self esteem, therefore the service user will refuse to tolerate abuse and will be more inclined to report it. They are also around other people when actively participating, which will help to build friendships in which they can share things they may tell one of these friends if abuse should happen, which could lead to the service user obtaining help. Promoting choice and rights Service users have a right to dignity and freedom from discrimination. Ã They should be treated with respect and shown that their feelings are considered in the care they receive. Ã Service users should be empowered by being given choices and encouraged to make their own decisions, in this respect the likelihood of being abused by a carer is diminished. Explain the importance of an accessible complaints procedure for reducing the likelihood of abuse Promoting choice and rights is also addressed by having an accessible complaints procedure. This may be included in a service users welcome pack and backs up the service users rights, thus enabling the person to know who they can go to with a complaint or concern about any aspect of their treatment or care. This will give the person confidence in being able to file a complaint, who to complain to, the procedure to follow and what will happen when they have complained. 5. know how to recognize and report unsafe practices Describe unsafe practices that may affect the well-being of service users This can include a variety of practices, such as, carers not been properly/adequately trained for using equipment (eg hoists etc), carelessness, being too tired to carry out the role correctly, cutting corners due to time restrictions, inexperience, faulty equipment being used. Explain the actions to take if unsafe practices have been identified If unsafe practices are identified they need to be reported to my immediate line manager so that the person identified can be retrained or the condition remedied to prevent further damage. Describe the action to take if suspected abuse or unsafe practices have been reported but nothing has been done in response The national minimum standards (NMS) calls upon all care providers to have whistleblowing arrangements (which my organization also has), which will protect me and my job when I report my concerns. Whistle blowing is about helping people working for an organisation, to raise legitimate concerns or worries about unsafe or bad practices. If my concerns are not acted upon or I feel they have not been dealt with correctly I can pass my concerns on to the Care Quality Commission (CQC) and know that they will respond appropriately. Depending on the severity of my concerns I may feel it necessary to alternatively contact my Local authority safeguarding team or the police.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Intelligence and Character Ã¢â¬Å"What do you want to be when you grow up?Ã¢â¬ Everyone has been asked this question at some point in their life. In fact, I am still being asked this question during this time in my life. Although the questions are in a more mature format, such as, Ã¢â¬Å"What are you majoring in?Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"What are you going to do with your life?Ã¢â¬ I have always answered this question with the same response. I want to be a teacher. Throughout my entire life I have respected and looked up to all of my teachers, as well as admired my parents, who are both educators. However, during my lifetime of playing Ã¢â¬Å"teacherÃ¢â¬ I have never actually thought about my personal educational philosophy. Yet, I can look back now on my schooling experiences to see what has been important to me and to identify the major concepts and beliefs I posses in order to form my own teaching philosophy. Martin Luther King Jr. once said, Ã¢â¬Å"Intelligence plus characterÃ¢â¬âthat is the goal of true education.Ã¢â¬ I believe this single statement reflects my entire philosophy of education. I do not believe that any student can gain intelligence and a true character without being introduced to a variety of teaching philosophies and styles. Education, at any level, needs to encompass the needs and learning styles of all students; therefore, I intend on incorporating certain elements into my classroom from three main educational philosophies: Essentialism, Existentialism, and Progressivism. First and foremost, I will definitely use parts of Essentialism in my teachings. Because my goal is to become a secondary English and Language Arts teacher, I know it will be necessary to use this philosophy in order to teach classic... ...r in secondary English education and English, I plan on obtaining my Masters degree so that I can be the best teacher possible for myself and my students. I want to have the main role in my classroom at times, but I also want my students to feel as if they have an important voice as well. Combining parts of each of these methods will successfully make my classroom both a teacher and student oriented classroom. The students will of course learn their English skills and increase their intelligence, but they will also have a feeling of independence and respect, which will lead to the development of or addition to a personal character. Throughout this philosophy statement I have stressed the importance of accomplishing intelligence and character training in the classroom, and according to Martin Luther King Jr., my students will gain a true education in my classroom.
Friday, July 19, 2019
The process of recycling brush and leaves from curbside collection saves the city lots of money. When residents place their clean brush at the curb,they mustmake sure the pile is no bigger than six feet long and six inches in diameter.All leaves must be placed in clear plastic bags. Brush is collected separately from the leaves because the leaves are taken to the comppost drop-off facility for recycling. When a waste hauler driver comes to the drop -off facility loaded with brush,he or she must drive onto a scale so the load can be weighed.The driver information,load size and truck weights are then put into the computer for monitoring of driver,location,and weight. This policy helps the city find out which area of the city uses more collection or which area of town was affected more by a storm. THe driver will drive out to the disposal site and bump the brush in a pile.THe piles of brush are then compacted and pushed up until there is no available room on the site. Roughly every three months,the city contracts a grinding company to come out and grind all of the brush on the site.It generally takes the grinding company three weeks to grind all of the material After the grinding stage,the material is screened by using trammel with 3/8 inch screens.The materials are placed into windrows,this process speeds up the decomposition process.The small particles are then separated from the larger first grinds. The small material now becomes a product known as mulch fines. Once the first grinds have been screened, they will be reground using a tub grinder. The reground material is known as reground mulch. The reground material is not treated with any chemicals.It is allowed to cure or sit for 48 to 72 hours after being processed. The much product heats up naturally to temperatures from 140 to180 degrees.The temperture of the leaves is monitored and moisture is added when the leaves start becoming dry.When the leaves start to decompose the temperature can rise up to 200 degrees.After the decomposition process has taken place,the temperature decreaces to about 120 degrees. This natural process eliminates bugs and thier eggs.All trash and plastic bags are taken out of the material and it is now ready to be recycled and sold for public use.
War in Iraq: There Was Another Option 1. As our brave men and women in uniform find themselves embroiled again in a conflict in the Middle East, debate surrounding the timeliness and necessity of this second Gulf conflict has ceased in most professional circles. However, before the current conflict began, controversy raged over when and how to best prosecute this situation. Many argued that the United States should have worked through the United Nations to pursue a resolution that had the consensus of the world behind it. That endeavor, however, was doomed to failure from the start. The United States sought to solve this dilemma using military force. France and Germany desired to diffuse it using anything but force. In order to properly evaluate all options in this case, one must ask themselves how immediate a threat did Saddam Hussein pose to the United States and what is the best way to counter that threat? In my estimation, Saddam Hussein poses no immediate threat to the United States. Thus, the US government had the time to cultivate a plan to remove him from power that was agreeable to all involved. 2. One must examine the fine points of each argument that the administration had proposed for the immediacy of war in order to best refute them. The first and often most repeated argument that Saddam Hussein posed a direct threat to the United States is that he possessed weapons of mass destruction. I am willing to concede that the Iraqi military possessed both chemical and biological agents. Saddam Hussein had stockpiles of them that were never accounted for after the first Gulf War. He has even used them on several occasions on Kurdish minorities in Northern Iraq. However, no proof was ever offered that he possessed nu... ...o.com/news?tmpl=story&u=/ ap/20030411/ap_on_re_mi_ea/war_us_military_623> McDowell, Patrick. Crowd Kills 2 Clerics at Shiite Shrine . Middle East AP. April 11 th 2003. < http://story.news.yahoo.com/news?tmpl=story&u=/ ap/20030411/ap_on_re_mi_ea/war_clerics_killed&cid=540&ncid=716> Mearsheimer, John J. and Stephen M. Walt. An Unnecessary War . Foreign Policy. January/February 2003. 45-48 Pollack, Kenneth M. The Threatening Storm: The Case for Invading Iraq . Random House Publishing. First Edition 2002. 64, 144 Rai, Milan. No Justification For War . Znet. March 6 2002. Community for Social Change. April 13 2003. Rice, Condoleezza. Campaign 2000: Promoting the National Interest . Foreign Affairs. January/February 2000. 86 Tenet, George. Letter to Congress . October 2002
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Gun Control Outline I. Introduction A. American Dream, means different things to people (needs to be fought for) B To many people, freedom is owning a gun C. Gun control is strict enough. The United States government puts down laws strict enough to deal with firearms. II. Body A. Who Can Own A Firearm? 1. Why officials can use firearms a. Military and authorities use firearms to protect, not to attack b. These people have been trained and know how to handle firearms 2. Why do authorities and military need firearms a.Military and authorities know how to use them b. They use them to protect society, when civilians have them, they will most likely be used for good B. Why Civilians Can Handle Guns 1. Responsibility a. People use firearms for protection, what do they want protection from? Other people with guns and weapons b. If guns were illegal to the public, then the need to defend ourselves against people with guns would still not even be close to gone 2. Laws a. If guns were outlawed , then crime rates would maintain their levels or increase (facts insert here) b.Guns can lead to many terrible things such as school shootings that have taken place in the past BUT 3. Guns hurt people, people dont hurt people. Guns need to be in the hands of responsible people. III. Conclusion A. Guns are not bad things, itÃ¢â¬â¢s what you do with them that makes them bad B. In years to come, the use of guns will soon get out of hand C. Banning guns will never solve the problem completely.. it will make criminals more determined to get what they want with other, possibly more dangerous methods other than using a firearm. Gun Control Outline GUN CONTROL Thesis Statement Ã¢â¬â There is no doubt that this world would be a safer place without a license to carry, but we need to consider that guns are needed to hunt. Possible introduction Ã¢â¬â A lot of questions were raised about the effects of everyone being allowed to carry guns. The rise of crime and murder are certain areas to think about being most impacted by the state carrying side arms. We also need to ask ourselves, how often are guns used for protection?Is the law helping citizens protect their family or is the law just making it easier to commit murder? I Ã¢â¬â Are guns being used for protection? Is there enough prescreening done before selling a gun? Are citizens comfortable enough using a gun? II Ã¢â¬â Are guns falling into the wrong hands due to this law? Gangs and guns Kids and guns III Ã¢â¬â Are citizens taking the proper measures to secure their weapons? Should everyone one in the household be required to take a class on gun safety?Should all members of the household be required to learn how to shoot the gun? IV Ã¢â¬â How does gun control affect the hunters? Many hunters depend on their guns in order to feed their family? Hunting is a major source of income for many Possible conclusion Ã¢â¬â Although gun control is a very controversial subject, one thing is clear we need to seriously address this issue quickly. Until we get some kind of control over the purchase of weapons there are going to be many more senseless shootings.We have to find a way to prevent our youth from staring down the barrel of a loaded gun or being in prison for being on the other end of that gun. References Dickinson, Amy. Ã¢â¬Å"Mother Against GunsÃ¢â¬ Time Magazine. Web Monday. May 15, 2000 Lott, John R. Ã¢â¬Å"Why People Fear Guns. Ã¢â¬ Web 3 January, 2011 Ã¢â¬Å"Gun ControlÃ¢â¬ . Guninformation. org 6 April 2002 Web 14 July 2011 Johnson, Rick Ã¢â¬Å"How to police the PoliceÃ¢â¬ . 16 March 2009 timemagazine. com Web Ã¢â¬Å"Firearm s Bill DefeatedÃ¢â¬ mayorsagainstillegalguns. org. federal. congress 14 July 2011
Wednesday, July 17, 2019
REFLECTION bear witness ON LEARNING EXPERIENCES for command methodal psychological science Cecille Ann C. Pilapil, MS, MA, CIOP Name of Student KO, KATHERINE Y. Section 2PSY4 I genuinely fatality to be a t sever every last(predicate)y(prenominal)er. Children argon my passion and it has al paths been my biggest envis get on to succor them, to impart my familiarity to them, and to be suitable to recognise and relate to them.In this world that rapidly changes and draws, the use of goods and ser iniquitys of a teacher proves very essential in both sisters take to heart of study. In the past, I admit that I used to catch the easy modality step to the fore in study I relied immensely on rote memorisation to pass my subjects. I would spend hours and hours expert memorizing varied terms and concepts, without truly judgment what this or that manner.It was non that I didnt c ar round the courses I took, hardly l oneness(prenominal) because I cute to adopt high grades and I thought that equitable memorizing everything would instal it easier, besides soon came to under protest that it only did non. When it came to practical situations, I had a alternatively tight while applying myself. I didnt know how to put run-in into action, and I became quite anxious because if I wanted to be advantageful in the next, I had to attain how to adapt.If I wanted to be a teacher, first, I had to lever the process of culture and bring ining. What I rattling get in loved nearly my Educ Psych severalize is that I was able to check up on a wad through doing the things I enjoy, like ceremony films to assist fail understand unalike concepts, engaging in mathematical group discussions, interacting with my strainmates, and save laughing and having fun with each former(a).As a class, we were taught the value of team pass water we function as a maven unit. This re totallyy brought me and my classmates closer to on e another. Educ Psych had really helped us see why it is so signifi jakest for us to know each other and why we should shop at and rate one another all of these atomic number 18 necessary to achieve integrity. Our motto was Do what you say, say what you do, and this has helped us in so slightly ways, not al unitedly in instill but besides at legal residence, and in our relationships with others. This subject did not only give me insight on what it would be like to be a teacher, but I was as hygienic able to chance upon a honourable glimpse on how much a teacher faecal social function change students make outs, simply by earreach to them, by encouraging them, by localise not only academic reading time but also gauge time with them, and simply, by universe their superstar and caring for them. another(prenominal) master(prenominal) lesson for me is that being a good student is not at all about look good in front of your professors and classmates, or receiving high grades. What really defines a good student is how she is able to value the companionship she obtains inside the classroom and applies all those lessons well-educated in real life.This class has helped me come along in so many ways in relating with my classmates, in relating with my professors, and in relating with myself. This class had pried open my mind and helped me learn how to intermingle my friendship with action. preceptal Psychology examineQUESTION 1 instruction just about by all odds vivifys a key role in building the future of our countrified bea but many prentices atomic number 18 silence overleaping the fundamentals of a introductory superior fosterage. The southerly Afri lot temper Act was passed in 1996 and came into operation on 4 February 1997 26 (Duma, 1995). Chapter 2 of this Act contains the charge of Rights in which the State tells the protection of persons fundamental rights (Duma, 1995). Section 29 talks about the r ight to pedagogy (Duma, 1995). This section recognizes that every person has a right to base procreation and to mate entry to raisingal institutions (Duma, 1995).It is all the way straightforward though that this has not taken institutionalise because drear learners, especially in the sylvan areas are not receiving the necessary quality direction that they are entitled to. slightly cultivateings in the rural areas alleviate lack raw corporeal facilities such as travel rapidly water, toilets, desks and electricity (Seroto, 2004). To worsen the situation some schools are built only of corpse (Finne to a greater extent, 2009). Many t take inship schools are in a serious state of dilapidation, partly due to theft of infrastructure and other forms of vandalism (Seroto, 2004).The shortage of classrooms, equipment and other inform resources is evident in many schools now (Finne more(prenominal), 2009). Poor school management practices and impaired teacher evaluati on are conducive factors (Finnemore, 2009). The poor state of our school buildings and facilities is pondering of the current calculate outary crisis (Tedla, 1995). This lack of entre to resources and materials by babyren in the rural areas cash in ones chipss to in affectities deep d profess our genteelness strategy. Children in urban areas and vacuous schools stool access to a better quality information than pincerren in the rural black areas.Read also fund ForgettingThese inequalities forthwith may be as a result of the Bantu education form. There has been inequality of access to education between the ovalbumin and black schools in the past, and the evidence is brought forth when the political asymmetry led to the disruptions of schools and centres for political indoctrination, leading to strikes and class boycotts, with the aim of demanding a change in the Black institutions of encyclopedism (Sedibe, 2011). According to teachers in Kwa-Mashu schools the core of all the problems facing schools like a shot was the whole organisation of Bantu Education (Sedibe, 2011).This implies that what is presently happening in schools today is the result of years of oppressive education (Sedibe, 2011). Due to inadequate and unequal access of resources these schools in rural areas send awaynot function effectively (Sedibe, 2011). It is therefore the state of the Department of Education to supply adequate resources and make them operational to all schools evenly, in order to promote a culture of teaching and learn indoors schools (Sedibe, 2011). This is a very important case that subscribes to be taken seriously if we are talking about investing in the future of our children.This means that rural areas acquire much more support from authorities than urban areas do in terms of education. They call for to be allocated a fair share of the compute that go out help remedy the distressing conditions they are faced with. This idler be achi eved by providing them with all the necessary tuition resources they get, which in turn depart alter them to adequately equip themselves and therefore guarantee them a bright future. Another issue that arises in our schools today is having teachers who are any unqualified or under-qualified.This was as a result of the closure of most rush schools and teacher training facilities in 1953 which force all teacher training into racially separated government training colleges, geared to extending the mass base of Bantu Education (Douglas, 2005). Since other professions were closed to them on racial or economic grounds, many batch of colour became teachers by default (Douglas, 2005). As a result, under-qualified, unqualified and even un-matriculated teachers were employ (Douglas, 2005).Training centres for our teachers today are a necessity if we appetency to see pupils succeeding and achieving their goals. instructors want to be equipped with the relevant skills and knowled ge to carry out their roles discriminately and confidently. political sciences reckon for education necessarily to set aside funds that leave behind invest in training centres for teachers indeed investing in the future and success of our learners, and in turn leading to a healthy, stable and create nation. Another function that arises is that of the apartheid system.During the apartheid era black people were discriminated against and this was clearly evident in the area of education. The performance of Bantu education visualised that the take aim of education provided to Africans could be disparateiated, with a small urban population obtaining education beyond the basal level, while the studyity of the African migrator labour force received only minimal particular education (Mabokela, 2000). compose foc utilise on the apartheid era, systems and laws were put in place that make sure that black people were excluded from certain opportunities and benefits.For example, a pprenticeship training programs knowing for instruction of skills at workplaces were also for many years reserved solely for white persons (Finnemore, 2009). Over flood tide the long shadow of apartheid education is proving a major hurdle to the development of our nation. In terms of governments budget for education, has there been a tribulation to equally allocate resources? politics needs to revisit this budget to make sure that it is being fairly and equally distributed, so that every learner can prepare the fortune to benefit from it.Governments disbursal on education has declined over the years (Tedla, 1995). Although many students are found in primary schools, and although this level of education is less big-ticket(prenominal) than secondary or tertiary levels, the financial support for it has steadily decreased (Tedla, 1995). in one case sinlessness education was financed at 185 part of the discipline average whereas the education departments of the former non-in dependent homelands were funded at 74 percent of the national average and the former independent homelands at 67 percent (Seroto, 2004).This clearly shows living disparities with regard to the provision of education for White learners and for Black learners perpetuated by the former apartheid government (Seroto, 2004). This apartheid system has had an effect on our education system today. The southwestern African budget also suffers from the effects of apartheid. The economy is still reeling from the economic downfalls of apartheid and there is a major problem in maintaining current levels of spending with the solution being unclear (Education in south Africa, 2005).All the factors discussed above play a critical role in the development of our education system today and unless we make a conscious decision to take the necessary steps to amend these problems, the future of our children cannot be guaranteed. QUESTION 2 In the article provided it is very clear that the conditions for encyclopedism are not conducive at all for the students to learn. These conditions sooner can lead to the demotivation and discouragement of the students. slightly of the negative study conditions they are exposed to are a marvelous shortage of cultivation facilities, resources and materials like desks, chairs, contrive books and workbooks. The classroom floors are described by the teacher as a mother fucker road. This is definitely detrimental to the health and eudaemonia of the learners. The classroom walls are described as raw and bare. We know that children need a stimulating and motivating environment to grow and without things like paintings, drawings and pictures on the walls it becomes very intemperate for them to develop.All these conditions that have been described above stand as a barrier to the big businessman of students to learn. These conditions could lead to the students failure to learn anything, not because they are incapable or incapable but because of the poor and bad acquisition conditions they have been exposed to, leading to their failure to cope. For these students who attend school in these conditions, precise can be learned, surely, on a day under a tattling(a) hood or with no roof at all (Tedla, 1995). These problems can and do discourage pupil attendance (Tedla, 1995).The affair of the Psychologist The role of the psychologist in such a condition would be, first and foremost to understand the nature of each child indoors this context so that they may be able to assist them. For example, different children will behave and react differently to different situations. Some children may be live(a) to such conditions and view them as opportunities to learn, instead of viewing them as barriers to learning. In such draw these children would do whatever it takes to work hard and achieve their goals no consider the circumstances.Other children might end up discouraged, demotivated, depressed, frustrated, show and unhappy. It would be the responsibility of the psychologist to find out about the nature of each child by conducting appraisals. Assessment of children requires special adjustment of assessment procedures and particular interview techniques (Holford et al. , 2001). These assessments could allow in one-on-one sessions with the child. In addition to interviewing children, using developmentally permit language, drawing techniques and visionary play can elicit expensive nformation (Holford et al. , 2001). This could also include observing each child inwardly the classroom scene and seeing how they respond and react within that classroom environment. For any comprehensive assessment of a child, direct observation of action level, motor skills, verbal expression, and vocabulary are also essential (Holford et al. , 2001). Any potpourri of assessment used by the psychologist should not be complex but quite an simplified so that learners are able to understand.Questions must be simple and appropriate for the childs developmental level (Holford et al. , 2001). This in turn will view that there is conference between the learner and the psychologist. It will also help to ensure that learners benefit from these sessions. It is also very important that the psychologist understands how the child views the circumstances in his or her environment. indeed the primary goal of the interviewing technique is to gain the childs own thought (Holford et al. , 2001).Teachers can also gather with the psychologists to help the learners. This is what is referred to as unified collaboration. It can often be useful for the psychologist to peach to the childs teacher(s) as their reports can give valuable supplementary culture (Holford et al. , 2001). A standard questionnaire could be habituated over to the teacher to provide information about the childs learning skills, talent to cope in a group situation, lucifer relationships, and relationships with adults in authority (Holfo rd et al. , 2001). possible Interventions by the PsychologistA key component of Bronfenbrenners model (the ecological systems theory) is the correspondence that children are also active participants in their own development, and the environment therefore does not simply impact on the child (Swart & Pettipher, 2005). Childrens perceptions of their context are central to catch how they interact with their environments (Swart & Pettipher, 2005). The way they perceive their circumstances influences the way they respond to their human and bodily contexts (Swart & Pettipher, 2005).The microsystem refers to the activities or interactions in the childs immediate surroundings (Swart & Pettipher, 2005). The mesosystem refers to connections or interrelationships among microsystems of homes, schools, and peer groups (Swart & Pettipher,). The psychologist could use both the microsystem and mesosystem in coming up with different somas of incumbrances. For example, the psychologist could inc lude general interventions with parents, teachers or the school itself (Landsberg, 2011).A systemic intervention with parents would involve finding out more about the child in the home environment, how the child interacts with them as parents, how the child interacts with his or her peers and any other toughies or problems the child may be experiencing at home. Another intervention could involve parent and teacher workshops (Landsberg, 2011). Parents and teachers could come together to discuss the show up of the children, the problems they are experiencing at home and at school and how parents can support teachers and vice versa, in assisting the children to overcome any obstacles or barriers they may be facing.They could also assist the children in making their learning birth a more pleasurable and victorious one. The school itself can also be involved in this intervention, by, for example, designing programs and projects (Landsberg, 2011). This could help students in developi ng their capacity to learn and work together in groups, as well as developing their communication skills within groups. It could also teach them how to love and support one another in such an environment.These interventions used by psychologists should not only focus on the childrens weaknesses but should also focus on their strengths that can be used to give for their areas of weakness (Landsberg, 2011). These interventions should provide the learners with immediate benefits that can be go throughd, including the identification of social or emotional difficulties, considerations and coping strategies to enhance learning and methods for increasing motivation and interest in affected areas as required (Landsberg, 2011). QUESTION3In this article, owning a toy is a dream kinda than a reality for these children. They believe to have toys but because their parents are unemployed and the school cannot afford to provide them with these toys this is not a reality for them. Having toys s hould not be seen as a luxury but rather as a necessity for children of this age to grow and develop appropriately. They desire to have desks, chairs, picture books and many more resources. For them without these basic resources they feel they will not be able to realize their goals.They also desire playgrounds, see-saws, pencils, toys and most importantly food. These desires are the kind that any child of school overtaking age would have. Food is one of the very important and basic necessities for anyone to survive, no matter the age. If these children cannot even afford to get a decent meal it becomes very difficult for them to learn anything at school. They also desire water and toilets, which once again are basic necessities of life that one cannot live without. It is a sad fact that at this young age, these children have been denied the opportunity to the basic necessities of life.Pupils dream of computers but they are up to now to see one. In this fast-paced technical and gl obal environment, every child should be exposed to a computer and abandoned the basic skills of how to operate one. These children need to be given the opportunity to realize their goals and aspirations in life. At their young age it is difficult to expect them to understand what is going on. Therefore teachers, the government, the education department and parents all have a big role to play in the lives of these children in order to make sure that they realize and achieve their dreams.Material conditions definitely need to be improved to enhance the learning of these children but they also need a strong support system from both parents and teachers to help them through their learning go out. One needs to get into the childs world and see things from their perspective (Holford et al. , 2001). In this way they will be able to understand the children and what they are experiencing and thus be able to assist them. It is the responsibility of government to improve the conditions of th ese impoverished schools so that children can be able to learn and be productive in their learning experience.They also need to provide more learning resources for the children so that they can enhance their ability to learn. Basic facilities such as rails water, toilets, desks, chairs and electricity should be made available and easily accessible for these children. Parents within these communities also need assistance in finding employment or loans to out small businesses so that they too can be able to support their children and sacrifice to the schools they attend. The risk of children falling sick because they do not have access to reave and healthy water must be reduced.This problem stands as a barrier to achieving their goals and dreams. It is the responsibility of our union, government, parents and teachers to work together in making sure that children overcome these barriers to learning by adequately equipping them in every possible way to realize their goals. All thes e factors that have been mentioned greatly endure to the emancipation of these children and unless we all work together to see that these children are emancipated, their future cannot be secured. QUESTION 4A detailed i encompass education system within a multidisciplinary context that can improve the educational outcomes of children of school going age would be one that firstly offers quality education for all learners. This means that all learners should have equal access to adequate facilities and resources (for example, clean running water, toilets, desks, chairs and electricity) within their school environment unheeding of their race (whether they are black or white), regardless of where they live (in the rural or urban areas) and regardless of whether they are modify or disadvantaged.Secondly, this system should accommodate the different learning styles of different learners within schools. Some learners may need visual material to support them in their learning experience s ome learners may need learning material to be broken up into smaller amounts other learners may want to see the whole picture beforehand the material is broken up some learners may prefer studying with background knowledge music others may prefer studying in a quiet place (Swart & Pettipher, 2005 ). This system should make provision for all these different learning styles of learners.This system also needs to move away from the apartheid system that accommodated English more than anything. Schools now need to embrace the renewing of cultures and languages within our society by finding a way to accommodate each and every learner, no matter their background or culture. At the same time they need to help learners realize the continued importance of developing their English language skills. This can be done through the use of appropriate reading materials, writing skills and appropriate teaching methodology. Thirdly, this system should be one that accommodates the diversity of learn ers within our society and community.In this case, teachers need to be given more time to mean their teaching activities to include a diversity of learners (Landsberg, 2011). Not only do teachers need to be given more time to plan their teaching activities but they also need helpers or additional teacher assistants (also called classroom assistants) who can support them in teaching a diversity of learners as well as support from narrow people for advice and guidance (Landsberg, 2011). Teachers also need administrative support as well as adequate learning support materials and assistive devices appropriate for the needs of learners with disabilities (Landsberg, 2011).This system can only be prosperous in improving the educational outcomes of children of school going age if teachers are given all the support they need to deal with the different kinds of learners within the different schools. Government also needs to invest in teachers by sending them to training centers that will a dequately equip them with the required skills and knowledge necessary for them to cope in their different school environments. REFERENCE LIST Douglas, J. (2005). interlingual rendition of the atomic number 16 African schooling system. Teacher Professionalism and Education Transformation.Braamfontein The Centre for Education constitution Development. Duma, M. (1995). Community Involvement in country-bred schools in Pietermaritzburg Area. (Masters Thesis, University of South Africa. ). Education in South Africa. Retrieved October 19, 2005 from www. southafrica. info/ess_info/saglance. education/education. htm Erasmus, BJ, Loedolff, PvZ, Mda, T & Nel, PS. (2009). Managing training and development in South Africa (5th ed. ). Cape town Oxford. Finnermore, M. (2009). Introduction to force Relations in South Africa (10th ed. ). Durban Butterworths. Holford, L. Ziervogel, C. & smith C. (2001). Child and adolescent psychiatry. In B. Robertson, C. Allwood, C. A. Cagiano. (Eds). schoo l text of Psychiatry for Southern Africa (1st ed) Cape Town Oxford University Press. (pp. 282 321). Landsberg, E. (2011). (Ed. ). Addressing Barriers to Learning A South African Perspective. Pretoria Van Schaik Publishers. (pp. 69-85). Mabokela, R. O. (2000). Voices of conflict Desegregating South African universities. New York, Routledge Falmer. Sedibe, M. (2011). Inequality of bother to Resources in Previously Disadvantaged South African High Schools.The Journal of hearty Science, 28(2), 129-135. Seroto, J. (2004). The impact of South African enactment (1948 2004) on Black Education in Rural Areas A Historical educational Perspective. (Doctoral dissertation, University of South Africa. ). Swart, E. , & Pettipher, R. (2005). A framework for understanding inclusion. In E. Landsberg, D. Kruger & N. Nel (Eds). Addressing barriers to learning A South African perspective. Pretoria Van Schaik Publishers. (pp. 3-23). Tedla, E. (1995). Sankofa African thought and education. New York, NY Peter Lang.