Saturday, August 31, 2019

Divorce Research Paper Essay

Pondering question to get reader thinking about topic II. What the problem is d. â€Å"Children do not fall behind their peers in these areas during the potentially disruptive period before their parents divorce, the study revealed. Instead, it’s after the split that kids seem to have the most trouble coping. Include this from Healthday reporter Alan mozes e. What the child feels, they feel its their fault and makes them more upset III. Statistics f. What classes children with divorced parents are struggling in g. Average grades for the kids h. What it does to teens IV. My personal experience i. How my grades were before and after j. What classes I was struggling in k. My personal feelings about it V. Conclusion l. Say how parents really need to think about how it will affect their child before going through with it. m. My views on the statistics and why it is valid info n. Opinion about parents being more involved in children’s schoolwork. Christian Startt Mrs. Pantusa English 1 A. P Prep April 26, 2013 Divorce and How It Affects Children Introduction Divorce can be the most inconvenient and hardest long-term problem of a child’s life, affecting all parts of his or her life all because of the parent’s failing marriage. 41% of first marriages end in divorce (Irvin, M), which is a substantial percentage of marriage that has not followed through with their vows and left their kid’s normality in the dust. Grades, emotions, and innocence all are changed in the process of the divorce, as well as a new set of challenge and problems these kids have to face in everyday life. Divorce isn’t just a split between a family, it’s more of a life changer. â€Å"As soon as me and my wife Terri divorced†, explains Chris Startt, â€Å"basic life changed heavily. Laundry, cooking dinner everyday, and constantly worrying about my son’s grades has really kept me busy and stressed†. I asked Chris how his son’s grades were after his divorce. â€Å"When me and my ex were still together, Christian’s grades were outstanding, strait A’s. But later (a year passes) his grades went from strait A’s to B’s and C’s later on in middle school†. According to Healthday reporter Alan Mozes, â€Å"Children do not fall behind their peers in these areas during the potentially disruptive period before their parents divorce, the study revealed. Instead, it’s after the split that kids seem to have the most trouble coping†. Research suggests that the odds of a divorce occurring in a household before the children become grown rest at about 50% (Ahilburg and DeVita, 1992), with divorce rates beginning to soar in 1963 (Jeynes, 1999). A 60-year literature review of 347 experimental studies confirmed that many studies have concluded that divorce has negative consequences for children’s academic achievement (Kunz, 1992). Most research shows that the child’s math scores were the ones that were mostly affected. â€Å"Kim found that while a divorce is in progress, first, second and third-graders experience a dip in math test scores — a decline that holds steady once the divorce is final†. (Mozes) But, at the same time reading scores didn’t really seem to be changing, as research from (Mozes) shows that â€Å"†¦however, Kim found that reading scores remain unaffected†. When my parents divorced, about 6 years ago, I was 9 years old in 3rd grade and that’s when my grades went from strait A’s, to A’s and B’s, and then a C here and there. Mathematics really begun to get more and more difficult to concentrate to and the tests were getting harder to understand. Reading, however, was my strength in elementary school, and it remained un-affected after my parents divorce. Researcher Hyun Sik Kim explains, â€Å"Reading is not that cumulative. But with math, you must understand previous things to develop. For example, if I do not understand that one plus one is two, then I cannot understand multiplication. Divorce really puts a child’s mind in motion. After the divorce the child may feel like it was his/her fault, causing stress and emotional problems. By this happening, the child will become more stressed by the moving between houses, therefor making it harder to concentrate on schoolwork and thus grades beginning to lower. My personal experiences also help support my argument. Divorce should be decided with caution; you have to think about how its going to affect your child and how its going to affect their future.

Bank of America Company Profile

Bank of America is a global financial services company headquartered in Charlotte, NC. It is one of the world’s largest financial institutions. Bank of America serves over 53 million customers. They serve these customers through 5,500 retail banking offices. Bank of America is known as a leader in the online banking world. Online alone the company services 30 million active users. The company serves customers in all 50 states and more than 40 countries. The company has numerous different lines of business and employs over 260,000 people. (Bank of America 2012) Historical Perspective The entire banking industry is made of mergers and acquisitions. The history of Bank of America is no different. Bank of America’s earliest predecessor was called the Massachusetts Bank. Boston petitioners wanted the right to start a bank. They were armed with $300,000 in capital and had many supporters. 15 of the original shareholders were woman. Among the founders and first customers were names like; John Hancock, General Henry Knox, and Paul Revere. That branch opened for business on July 5th 1784. This happened before the US Constitution had even been adopted. John Hancock was the governor of Massachusetts. In 1784 he signed the banks charter making it only the second bank to receive a state charter. In 1786 Massachusetts Bank financed one of the earliest sailings of an American ship to china. This opened up the china trade. The bank continued to grow throughout America. Expanding to new states and changing names like Pacific National. It is believed that the Easton National Bank, one of the predecessors to Bank of America, was the first pay interest on deposits. Offering numerous financing to significant projects through history, one of the most notable is in 1815. After the fires that devastated the capital, the bank financed the reconstruction of the capital. Fast forward over a century to 1998. NationsBank merges with Bank of America. This move created the first coast-to-coast retail banking franchise. (Our Heritage, 2010) Bank of America continues to grow acquiring financial service companies like US Trust and Merrill Lynch. With a storied history in the financial services sector, and building of our country, Bank of America is the most fitting name. Lines of Business Bank of America focuses on 3 customers. They focus on the people, companies, and institutional investors. They are the leading provider of checking, savings, credit and debit cards, and home equity lending. Bank of America is the nation’s largest loan servicer offering numerous different home mortgage options. Bank of America is a strong hold in Global Corporate and Investment banking. The Bank also has a strong focus on financial advising and wealth management. The addition of Merrill Lynch has put Bank of America as the leader in Financial Services. Financial Position Bank of America, or BAC, is often one of the most popularly traded stocks. In April, the share price of BAC declined over 5% to $11. 63. (Oleinic, 2013) As interest rates start to bottom out, the bank must constantly adjust to keep revenue up. Currently the 52 week range of BAC is $6. 90 – $13. 99. Although it has a larger 52 week range, the company is still somewhat stable. It has achieved this by building a strong balance sheet. In 2012 Revenue in millions was reported at $84,235 while Net income was reported at $4,188. Compared to 2011 revenue dropped almost $10,000 however Net income increased from $1,446. As far as the shareholders are concerned, BAC has an EPS of $. 2. Overall the company is positioning itself to remain strong during the current downturn. (Bank of America 2012) Bank of America must constantly adhere to stricter policies from the SEC; while still maintain a positive image in the consumers mind. As the bank continues growth it must remain competitive against its 3 competitors; Citi, Wells Fargo, and Chase. Conclusion Bank of Amer ica plays a major role in the global market place. From its beginning in the late 1700’s, the bank has seen the value in financing international trade. Centuries later the same remains true. Any company as large as Bank of America will be influential in the Global market place. As mentioned above, with 260,000 employees, the company has certainly left a very deep foot print in the global economy. The unique thing with Bank of America in the global economy is the amount of other global businesses that depend on the stability of the company. It is a company that finances several other global companies. For this reason, I think Bank of America will be here for a long time. It has positioned itself to grow during an economic downturn. We will have to wait to see if it has been good growth.

Friday, August 30, 2019

American civil war

The South States of the United States dependent upon agriculture as a source of foreign and domestic exchange and therefore held a negative feeling about abolition of slavery. Nevertheless in order to save the image of the constitution as a legal binding document that granted freedom to all Abraham Lincoln together with the support of the Union states felt that liberal source of labour was much more profitable both to the economy and civilization of the United States.The cotton and tobacco producing states felt oppressed by the antislavery tactics of the federal government and promptly seceded since the federal government was acting beyond the provisions of the constitution in abolishing slavery and therefore in response decided to secede from the Union for independence since they considered the Union’s constitution less supreme to individual states’ constitution.Therefore the American civil war was about the issue of different views about free labour against slavery an d the subsequent supremacy of the Union’s constitution over individual states independence. The Union established the 13th amendment act that abolished slavery by allowing all men to be free and at liberty to and in order to preserve the constitution that formerly paradoxically upheld slavery, Abraham Lincoln had support the Union’s war against the pro-slavery south (Cornell University Institute, 2010).The federal government had its quarters at the Washington D. C. while the Confederation has it headquarter at Virginia’s Richmond. The Union’s economy was organized and well established through the promotion of industries and use of immigrants as industrial workers and the general population while the south cotton and tobacco states derived their economic subsistence from agriculture with over five million slaves.The Republican Party believed in democracy and justice regardless of ethnicity as a fundamental right under the auspice of the constitution-conseq uently in order to protect the supreme constitution’s aspirations to promote a coherent and democratic America the Union had to fight the southern militia that were against the Union control and abolition of slavery (Stampp, 1981, 144).Religious, cultural and intellectual freedoms were being undermined in the South against the Union government’s principle of the 13th amendment act and the allowed slavery was denting the image of US in Europe that widely perceived the presence of slavery to as a sign of inability within the Union’s government to act.Economically, the Union benefitted from the Union government economic policies and taxation more than the confederation. Therefore it was a mandatory economic issue that the United States had to be kept together despite the civil war through proper conflict resolution that would see the economic models of the North America spread to the south in order to end the former economic disparities between the two regions.The economic value of the United states in the international market was dependant on the union more than a divided America that would soon enter into worse civil unrest realities and fierce interstate rivalry of ideologies and religious views that would have torn American into pieces as the American enemies projected as a mechanism to further colonize and control the economic power of the vast continent. Lincoln as the president had the right to preserve the Union from disintegration due to diverse political views in order to look in control (Stampp, 1981, 192).Military aggression of the southerners was well advanced to inflict damage in courage and sustainable conquest tactics due to the recently concluded Mexican war experience to use the horse and the gun more effectively. Also, the North as the government knew that they were disadvantaged in military action and therefore the war had to be fought with a common ground that would help in enlisting more soldiers to defeat the south (McW hiney, 1984,170).Therefore the Union was aware that in any case the southern aggression had to be suppressed if the power of the Union government under the leadership of Abraham Lincoln was to be recognized with respect as a legally binding Union. Therefore President Lincoln referred to the 1863 Emancipation Proclamation as the â€Å"last card, and I [Lincoln] will play it and may win the trick.† And therefore â€Å"we must make that proclamation effective by victories over our enemies. † Since â€Å"It's a paper bullet, after all, and of no account, except we can sustain it† (Don, 1862)-thus the president and the union were exercising a crucial and political will by suppressing the southern insurgency that threatened to break apart the United State into meaningless defragmentation that would soon shrivel up in economic and political disparity.The south secede was politically seen as a form of annexation against the United States and Lincoln would have gone down the history as the president who broke the Union. Consequently, the Union had a political right to protect the US from becoming desolate in the face of the determined southerners who believed in offensive wars that â€Å"have many advantages; purely defensive ones will always end with submission† and that â€Å"the greatest minds in the South are coming to the conclusion, that our liberties are to be won by the bayonet.Those regiments or companies that most distinguish themselves in bayonet charges will march on the true road to honor and preferment† (McWhiney, 1984, 144); such propaganda in the general media put the Union government into task of either preventing the escalating confrontation by the Confederation or face imminent alienation. Therefore the preservation of the Union was quite dependant in the military power of the Union over the south as the civil war was already in progress. The south seceded from the war after the election of Abraham Lincoln as the pr esident of the United States.The southern economy was dependant on agriculture. With the large scale growing of cotton, slaves and land conservation was necessary. The slaves were needed since they were a source of cheap labor on the white farms. As opposed to the south, the north’s economy dependent on industrial production of finished goods thus the slaves was not needed in the production. This meant that the southern life was based on the plantation and firm system while the northern life was based in the cities.The southerners who benefited from agriculture were pleased to go to war with the aim of attaining independence as they thought the war would take a short time and they would come out victorious as they were better skilled fighters than the northerners. However, since the war showed no sign of coming to an end while the northern seemed to be taking all the advantages, the northern felt the need to guard and conserve their land against any force especially the north ern thus leading to most abandoning the fighting to and protect their properties at home.( Kelly 2010) The war of states versus federal rights led to the emergence of two camps within the government whereby each wanted to be in control over the other. After the American Revolution, a weak federal government formed by thirteen states called for a strong constitution since problems were on the rise. The frequent problems led to the secret creation of the US constitution by the leaders.Due to the absence of some key leaders like Thomas Jefferson and Patrick Henry during the constitution making, it was felt the constitution had failed to put in mind the states’ rights of acting independently whereby a state would decide whether to accept or refute federal rights. This led to the idea of nullification that would see the freedom for states to rule the federal act as either unconstitutional or not. The southern states were for the option of each state making its own law instead of t he central government. This was nullification as campaigned for by people such as John C. Calhoun who greatly advocated for the nullification.When nullification failed to succeed, the southern states felt disrespected and uninvolved in the government issues. The southerners then opted for the secession as an option (Kelly2010). Land gained from the Louisiana Purchase and Mexican war saw the Americans posses vast tracks of lands. This led to the big debate as whether the new states acquired could be treated as slaves or Free states. The 1820 Missouri compromise solved the issue by proclaiming that slavery was illegal while other alternates suggested several awareness programs for the slaves as the federal government was to compensate the slave owners.The south was left to rethink its alternatives on the issue of slavery where it picked on benefits versus cost in deciding the fight. (Michael 1996)Another conflict arose as to what would happen to the conquered lands after the war. The 1846 Wilmot Proviso by Wilmot David proposed that the land should be slave free a move strongly opposed in a debate. Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 that caused the freedom to have slaves or not in the two states led to a lot of blood shedding to the states.The wrangles led to the south withdrawal from the government as they felt they were being ignored. The growth of the abolition movements by the northerner’s against slavery while proclaiming the negative impacts of slavery led to the increase in number of anti slavery supporters especially from the outside nations who sympathetically joined in the slavery abolition movement thus favoring the north against the south to the extent of supporting the south in war that eventually saw the south loose over the north. (Kelly 2010).Though the victory of Lincoln in the elections saw the south in the state of South Carolina declare a secession thinking that Lincoln was who was a presidential candidate from the north was elected so as to favor the interests of the anti slavery people from the north thus he could not serve their interests . The southerners further thought that they could lose their land to the northern who were now in control of the whole state thus causing some men in the battle ground feign excuses to get back home and manage their possessions.States like South Carolina stated the reason for secession being constitutional violation under Lincoln to which the Union saw as a form of political annexation against the presidency and the founding fathers view about America (Michael 1996). In conclusion the war that was sparked off by the issue of slavery in order to protect the supremacy of the Union constitution against the literally annexation of the United states by the South was won and the servitude done away with.Remarkably, President Lincoln preserved the Union and established a better platform that allowed the integration of the economic value of the United States as one nation. References: Don E . and Virginia E. Fehrenbacher, editor, Recollected Words of Abraham Lincoln: Letter from Charles Sumner to John Bright. August 5, 1862 McWhiney, G. (1984). Attack and Die: Civil War Military Tactics and the Southern Heritage. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0817302298, 9780817302290 Stampp, K. (1981). The Imperiled Union: Essays on the Background of the Civil War.Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0195029917, 9780195029918 Cornell University Institute. (2010). 13th Amendment. Legal Information Institute. http://topics. law. cornell. edu/constitution/amendmentxiii Michael B. (1996). Lincoln’s election and the south. Retrieved May 8, 2004 from http://www. h-net. org/~south/archives/threads/lincoln. html Kelly M. ( 2010)Top Five Causes of the Civil War Leading up to Secession and the Civil War Retrieved May 8, 2004 from http://americanhistory. about. com/od/civilwarmenu/a/cause_civil_war. htm

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Government treatment of citizens after an attack of the country Essay

Government treatment of citizens after an attack of the country - Essay Example Alan Schlosser, legal director of the ACLU said discriminating against non-citizen airport screeners would not make us safer or more secure. Infact, it will certainly decrease air travel security by eliminating much of the experienced and trained workforce. This issue was to discriminate immigrants but it was debated out. American human rights law uses much the same terminology to recognize these and a few additional rights of noncitizens. A bill of rights for inspirational and guidance was passed on with the notion that all persons, whatever there legal status, have basic rights and should be treated equally. Eleven days after the terrorist attack, the congress passed the air transportation safety and stabilization Act to protect air carriers from tort lawsuits against the airlines at their pre-existing liability insurance limits. The act established the September 11th compensation fund of 2001 in which victims of the attacks could opt to waive all federal and state tort claims and receive administrative relief through a predetermined formula, under the discretion of the fund administrator. (James, 1970) In centrally, Fifty five years ago in august, the U.S dropped a

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

ART Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

ART - Essay Example One does not exist without the other. In American tradition, an author is a creator and full owner of the original artwork. In copyright law, author is the major actor. Author’s role is defined in U.S. Constitution, while copyright law is part of federal law. Article 1 Section 8 of US Constitution states: â€Å"To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries† (U.S. Constitution Online). Even after death of the author, his copyrights continue their existence. However, the modern era have brought many issues connected to originality of created works, authorship, and modern copyright law. The very first law to regulate and protect original intellectual works was Copyright act of 1790. Firstly, it was solely publisher’s privilege and only later copyright law became â€Å"author’s right in her intellection product† (Bracha 186). Only in the nineteenth century the very essence of the copyright law was fundamentally altered. Today it is Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 which regulates authorship rights and protects holders of artworks in the UK. The right of copying artwork includes reproducing, preparing derivative works, distributing, performing, and displaying The law protects original works of art. The existing law applies to such works of art as follows: Copyright law is an example of a specific kind of product. This product is a masterpiece of artistic production. This piece comes together with the other related pieces and is very popular in modern society. This piece of art is related to such important business activities as trading, conserving, exhibiting, performing, reproducing and distributing works of art or reproductions. The main issue about â€Å"dogmatics of copyright is that this dogmatics is able to elucidate the normative import of art and aesthetics.† (Chicago. John M. Olin Law &

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Strengthening of concrete using fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) Dissertation

Strengthening of concrete using fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) - Dissertation Example Further, the energy dissipation capacity increases in multiples of 10of the retrofitted column-beam joints under increased displacements, till failure at 0.4g for unconfined frame and at 0.5g for confined frame. Accelerations of the shake table at 0.2g and 0.4g are observed and it is found that the acceleration of the shake table is higher under 0.4g by at least a factor of 10. Comparing accelerations of the left and right joints of the first and second floors respectively, it is found that the acceleration increases by at least a factor of 10between the floors and also based on higher accelerations of 0.4g when compared to 0.2g. The relative displacements of the first and second floor joints are measured and it is found that the relative displacement of the second floor joint was high (almost 4 times) to the point of breakdown while that of the first floor joints was same as that of the shake table at 0.4g. ... elative displacements of the two floor joints with respect to shake table are observed for 0.4g and 0.5g for confined frame and it is observed that while the displacement of the shake table is almost same or slightly higher by a factor of 10 for 0.5g as compared to displacement at 0.4g, there is little difference in displacement at the two floors at 0.4g, it is noted that the relative displacements of the two floors remain almost the same at 0.5g when compared to the same with those at 0.4g. Stability of the frame is more at 0.4g than at 0.5g. It is also more for the second floor joints than at the first floor joints. As axial compression is more at the first floor joints than at the second floor joints, the torsional capacity and ductility are high for the square RC column-beam joints. Further, as the FRP is bonded at the tension zones, in this case, the joints of beam-column, with external mounting, the flexure strength is increased and the seismic behaviour is improved with TFCÂ ® composite bonding at the joints of both the

Monday, August 26, 2019

Video games are the latest expression of the 'control society' Essay

Video games are the latest expression of the 'control society' (Deleuze 1992) Discuss this claim in relation to ideas of con - Essay Example The children who learn a sort of behaviour from these video games usually affect their own health, their social life and start lacking in physical activity games (Anderson & Bushman, 2001). This essay has explained the Deleuze’s concept of controlled society and how the video games can be, or, are being used in control and improvising of the control society. Evolution of Video Games Video Games have evolved over the past two decades. There was once a time when 16-bit and 32-bit gaming consoles were extremely popular around the world. These games were usually two-dimensional in nature and were relatively clean in terms of violence, nudity, expletives and sexual content (Gottfried, 2005). However, gaming has evolved rapidly with the passage of time and today, three- dimensional games are widely available. These games boast the most detailed and crisp high definition graphics and an addictive game play. Unfortunately, with advances in gaming technology, the level of inappropriate and unsuitable content in games has also increased to an alarming level (Gottfried, 2005). Advancements in Technology and the modern emergence of video games With the rapid growth and development of the society, the modernization of the technology is an important aspect that cannot be neglected. While the advancements continue to pave their path through the society, the concept of a control society, in terms of expressions, is an important phenomenon that has been introduced by Deleuze. The world’s leading producers of electronic games do their best to ensure that they stamp their game CDs with a prominent ESRB rating that gives the potential purchaser of the CD a general idea of the type of content that they might stumble across in the game. The ESRB rating is ideally meant to discourage younger audiences from purchasing games that have an 18+ or similar rating (Vorderer& Bryant, 2012). But is this enough to stop ardent gaming enthusiasts from playing their favourite games? No, it isn’t. Younger addicts of games are regularly exposed to inappropriate content as they are unable to control the strong urge to play the latest games and this usually means that they shun ESRB ratings. The games being developed these days are rich in graphical content and it is common for gamers to control a gung-ho protagonist and go on a killing spree as they match around the city shooting enemies in the head and spilling their blood all over the place (Vorderer& Bryant, 2012). Apart from this, there are also games where blade-swinging heroes swing their swords to cut off limbs and chop off heads. Such content is hardly considered to be appropriate for children under the age of 18. An example taken here is of â€Å"Hercules† and â€Å"mortal combat†. Unfortunately these games are the most common among younger children who have been addicted to them. Concept of Improvisation In testing and complex circumstances performing authorities improvise with a pa rticular deciding objective to pass on request from the holds of turmoil. Highsmith (2002) recommends this as a "choric" practice. Undoubtedly, in a gathering condition, there may be battling depictions for encounters, occasions and issues, however legitimately, translations help accord, that is, equifinality. This has been noted to happen all around crises where gifted people and conglomerations improvise life-sparing happens out of disarray. Deleuze’

Sunday, August 25, 2019


HOW DOES SOCIAL WORK INTERVENTION ON YOUNG PEOPLE, IN LONDON IS ANALYSED FROM A POSITIVIST PERSPECTIVE - Essay Example On the other hand, social work intervention can be broadly described as the process whereby a social worker provides interventions to individuals, families and groups of people among others with the aim of helping them to be able to bounce back from the numerous problems affecting their lives (Parris 2012, 57). From these interventions, the social workers are able to get a good assessment of what is affecting their clients and thus are able to provide perfect help. The aim of this research proposal is to be able to analyze social work intervention in young adults. Through the set objectives of this research, they will try to establish the functions of social workers in London, the various features incorporated in doing this work, the type of intervention chosen for various people and lastly, the effects accompanied with this analysis. In addition to this, the information that will be generated from the outcome of this research will be used for a number of purposes. The key purpose will be to create awareness to the public on the various issues affecting them and their families and how social work intervention can help them overcome all these challenges affecting them including drug and substance abuse, alcoholism and unemployment among others. From the results, viable and feasible recommendations will be formulated and this will be of significant effect to the society. The research proposal will be carried out in a number of ways that will be most suitable for the selected age group that is between 16 and 25 years old. The methodology to be used in carrying out this research will include the use of both primary and secondary sources of data collection. The primary sources to be exploited include carrying out observations, administering questionnaires and face to face interviews (Kothari 2005, 154). All these will be used since they will be able to provide first hand information

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Making a fair decision when bias is held on a subject Essay

Making a fair decision when bias is held on a subject - Essay Example Self-regulation, according to Gilovich, Griffin, & Kahneman (2002) refers to a sitaution where a person or organization adheres to issues as regarding legal, ethical or th standards of safety instead of having outside factors determining the decision making process. That is to say that an action odf decision must have a situational setting. The situational setting has basic rules and laws that determine the required end point in which case there is a strong positive out turn on the issue. As much as self-regulation has its level of conflict of interest, it is worth noting that there are no perfect decisions and each decision follows laid down rules (Starzak, 2012). Moreover, the aspect of self regulation considers wider perspectives from the individual to organizational level. However, there are also situation in which a group or individuals are thriving in unethical situations (Rezende, 2009). Consider the aspect of a bureacucratic society. If the society is asked to eliminate such, it may consider eliminating the respective unethical aspects witnessed as opposed to the ideal behaviour on the whole. That is a short run perspective (Starzak, 2012). Avoiding the issue of regulatory capture is an effective way of developing fair decision making (Rezende, 2009). The regulatory capture would consider that there are situations in which individuals with high stakes would want to advance their interests at the expense of the vast majority who have low stakes in the matter.

Friday, August 23, 2019

Hepatitis C virus in Africa (focus on Ethiopia) Research Paper - 1

Hepatitis C virus in Africa (focus on Ethiopia) - Research Paper Example after a series of tests and the discovery of the Hepatitis c virus was published in the journal Science the following year (Bailey 105).this paper will elaborate on Hepatitis C virus in Africa , discuss its signs, symptoms vaccination and treatment. This was a significant discovery in the medical world and led to the improvement of related areas such as diagnosis of hepatitis as well as antiviral treatment against the disease. The research on hepatitis is an ongoing process and scientists are still trying to learn more about the virus in a bid to find a way to effectively eliminate it form the world (Fisher, Harvey & Champe 362). The discovery of the virus led to a clear baseline on which research could be done having determined the subject of their studies and this has greatly improved the chances of the medical world at fighting the virus. The significance of this discovery was portrayed in the year 200 when Dr. Houghton and Dr. Alter received honors from the Lasker Award for Clinical Medical Research in recognition of the role they played in the discovery of the hepatitis C virus (Halliday, Klenerman & Barnes 634). Hepatitis C can be described as an infectious disease that primarily affects the liver of an individual and in bad cases leading to cirrhosis (Thomas & Lemon 530). The disease is caused by the Hepatitis C virus, and if not handled effectively, the disease can lead to liver cancer, esophageal and gastric varices and liver failure. The spread of the Hepatitis C virus occurs mainly through blood-to-blood contact and thus those who use intravenous drugs face the highest risk of being infected (Bailey 101). This occurs when the equipment used during the intravenous intake are not properly cleaned and sterilized beforehand and have previously been used by an individual with the virus (Fisher, Harvey & Champe 362). The virus tends to persist in the liver of most people who are infected though this condition can be treated via medication. Hepatitis C has

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Case study, Sensible Life Products Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Case study, Sensible Life Products - Essay Example for disinfectant products has been increasing steadily owing to the increased awareness from campaigns focusing on the importance of cleanliness and disinfection. Additionally, recent years have seen an increment in the number of infectious such as the avian flu thereby causing increased demand for disinfectants. This implies that there is a relatively large and ready market for SLP products. However, amid the rising demand consumers trends are changing in favor of products that consume minimum time possible. As such, it is recommended that SLP’s management consider organizations that are producing products that are easy to use and time saving such as wipes. This will ensure that benefect will retain its relevance in the market amid changing consumer trends. Additionally, market research shows that consumers are highly interested in learning about bacteria and germ protection. Furthermore, research studies shows that consumer preferences are changing in favor of environmental friendly products. As such, it is recommended that SLP channels more energy and resources into partners that have clear strategies of marketing benefect. Additionally, more importantly is a firm that will teach about the benefits of using environmentally friendly disinfectants such as benefect. However, this is seemingly difficult since a campaign promoting use of organic disinfectants would act against other products of most companies. Nonetheless, striking such a deal would ensure that benefect is still being produced and ensuring human health while simultaneously conserving the environment. Furthermore, disinfectants are regulated products hence the need to have a firm with extensive experience regarding the sale of regulated products. This implies the befitting firm to strike a deal with SLP was probably one already dealing with disinfectant products. Moreover, potential firms needed to have knowledge of the appropriate target market in which to sell the disinfectant products. This

Particular religion Essay Example for Free

Particular religion Essay I do not subscribe to any particular religion, but I believe in the transcendence of the human spirit, and that there is something greater than ourselves out there—an absolute entity that encompasses us all. Many could qualify this absolute being as a God, but the word holds many sociocultural implications such as worship or a personification of that beings attributes that I choose not to call it as such. I believe in the universality of goodness and that the only way one could achieve happiness and fulfillment is by living an good and honest life. My lifes experiences led me to believe in the concept of an absolute being, however, religion is not integral to my beliefs. My beliefs are determined my my experiences and not by religion. I have realized that most religions are man-made, and thus do not have any legitimate claim to the truth. It is all too apparent today that there exist many different religions, sects, churches, and denominations, most of which have conflicting beliefs. I have not encountered any one that works for me. Growing up, I was initiated to the religion of my parents—that is, Christianity. As a youngster, it easy to unquestioningly accept whatever it was that was inculcated in me. However, as I have gotten a better understanding of the world and myself, I have realized that that religion is lacking—for me it does not provide the adequate explanation as to living my life in the fullest sense. Over the years, religion has become irrelevant. For me, religion is a matter of faith—something I have but not to the extent that I accept that everything one religion tells me is true. Being a generally empirical person, that is to say, that I believe that something must be proven for it to be true, the idea of a religion, as we traditionally know it does not hold any weight for me. Having qualified what religion means to me, I can say that my definition does not reduce it to what I, as Frederick Streng says, â€Å"happened to be acquainted with by accident of birth and socialization. † I recognize the existence of a myriad of ultimate realities and pluralities when it comes to reli ¬gion and that having an open mind is the key to understandings what each belief really mean to the people who have them. I would not say that I have an anti-religion view, but having said that I do not subscribe to one may give that impression. My belief does not mean that I eschew every other religion as being false. I believe that religion have redeeming qualities, and that anything that influences a human being to be good and be the best that one can be could not be that bad. I would like to believe that my open attitude towards the concept of religion eliminates any perceptual bias, or reduces in the least. In the same token, my definition encompasses all, since I do not believe in the absoluteness and infallibility of any one. I regard new and emerging religions on the same ground as the old ones. All provide the means to potentially transform an individual. While my definition attempts to encompass all religions, it may not have enough precision to address each and every one of them. Just as beliefs evolve as one matures, so does ones definition of concepts and ideas. Its possible that I still have not experienced enough to qualify a universal definition that applies to every one. However, I believe that the search for the true understanding of religion is an ongoing process, that a closer study of it would make a clearer picture of the religious life emerge.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Perceptions And Attitudes Of Tourism Students Psychology Essay

Perceptions And Attitudes Of Tourism Students Psychology Essay The perceived nature of an industry is a key factor that determines the attractiveness of an industry. Many studies have projected a two- side image of the tourism industry. One was an image of glamour, reflected in aspects of the work such as associating with people, the opportunity to travel, using foreign languages and diverse job tasks (Szivas, Riley, Airey, 2003). The other was portraying a negative image whereby jobs were perceived as low status and low skilled (Szivas Riley, 1999). Students awareness of the main features of tourism jobs, such as low pay and unsociable working hours, may exert a negative influence on their behavioral intention, and force them to prematurely leave the industry (Parsons Care, 1991). Exposure to the industry through practical work experience help students to gain a better understanding of the tourism industry. They could see the advantages and shortcomings of tourism careers and obtain a clearer picture of what they liked or disliked about tourism jobs. Subsequently, enhancing their career decision making process. MORE!!! 2.2 Perceptions and attitudes of tourism students 2.2.1 Tourism programme It is worthwhile and logical to firstly, comprehend students perceptions and views towards choosing tourism programme before attempting to shed light on their attitudes towards a tourism career. Table 1 there, represents the studies of various authors concerning the attitudes and views of students vis- Ã  - vis the selection of tourism programmes, in a summarized form. 2.2.2 Tourism as a career choice Over the years, many studies have been conducted and much attention have been awarded to understand the perceptions and attitudes of young people or those individuals who are potentially likely to pursue a career in hospitality workforce in the future. Table 2 is a summarized version of the numerous studies carried out. 2.2.3 The concept of Career Intention and Choices Walton and Mallon (2001) commented that careers were regarded as chosen professions in particular areas or manifestation of career choices. These terms are appropriate as they relate to students degree of uncertainty over career intention, choice and commitment to a future career. In other words, making a career choice through pursuing the appropriate programme of studies may be a function of behavioral intention. A theory put forward by Ginzberg (1951) proposed that the ultimate decision regarding career choice is not reached at a single moment of time, but through a series of decisions taken over a period of many years as part of the process of mental and physical maturation. One stage which fits this study is the tentative period whereby, the young adult at the university level is steadily broadening their consideration and understanding of the factors underlying their emerging career choices. At first, their interest serves as the major (often the sole) basis for their choice. But, as time passes, new elements intervene, either internal or external and the students become aware that their interests have altered or new ones have emerged. Indeed, often before entering the university they have to decide on a particular career choice supported by the selection of an appropriate programme of study, plus there is pressure because of peers, parental concern, mature interest and other forces. Eventually, it is during their senior university level that the students might reconsider their choices, or support their initial career decisions. In the realistic period, a choice is made with the intention of realizing it. 2.2 The Theory of Planned Behavior Ajzen developed the Theory of Planned Behavior in 1991 as an extension of Ajzen and Fishbeins 1975 Theory of Reasoned Action. The TPB has four components: attitudes (i.e. the individuals positive or negative feelings about performing a behavior), subjective norm (i.e. the individuals perception of whether people important to the individual think the behavior should be performed), perceived behavioral control (i.e. The individuals perception on the self skills and ability of performing a behavior) and behavioral intention (i.e. an individuals readiness to perform a given behavior) Ajzen stated that for nonhabituaI behaviors that are easily executed by almost everyone without special circumstances, the theory of reasoned action was adequate. When behaviors are more difficult to execute, and when a person needs to take control over needed resources in order to act, the theory of planned behavior is a better predictor of behavior than the theory of reasoned action. In the theory of planned behavior, control is taken into account as a variable labeled perceived behavioral control, which is defined as a persons perception of how easy or difficult it would be to perform the action. The theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) has been since its development some 20 years proved to be a powerful approach to explain human behavior. Â   The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) predicts that planned behaviors are determined by behavioral intentions which are largely influenced by an individuals attitude toward a behavior, the subjective norms encasing the execution of the behavior, and the individuals perception of their control over the behavior (Ajzen, 1975). In simpler terms, behavioural decisions are the result of a reasoned process in which the behavior is influenced by attitudes, norms and perceived behavioral control. 2.3 The Theory of Planned Behavior: Model Icek Ajzens revised model (1991) is expressed in the diagram (figure 2) below: Figure 2: Ajzens Theory of Planned Behavior The theory of planned behavior postulates three conceptually determinants of intention. 2.4 Determinants of Behavioral Intention Attitude towards behavior Attitudes represent an individuals likes, dislikes, beliefs and opinions regarding a particular behavior. It represents a summary of evaluation of psychological object captures in attribute dimensions of good- bad, harmful- beneficial, pleasant- unpleasant, and likable- dislikable (Ajzen; 2001) Rosenberg and Hovland (1996) viewed attitude as a multi-component construct and made the following statement all responses to a stimulus object are mediated by the persons attitude towards the object. Ayres (2008) claims that traditionally there have been a career-for-life philosophy adopted by workers, whereby workers will spend their entire working life working in one industry, and, in many cases, one organization. This philosophy has in recent times, coinciding with Generation Y entering the workforce, been replaced by a more uncertain career structure, with employees frequently changing employers within their industry and many also pursuing work in different industries (Inkson, Anhur, and Pringle, 1999). Morton (2002) stated that Generation Y employees show a tendency towards valuing equality in the workplace and they seek positions that offer reasonable wages and good opportunities for training. Morton (2002) also claimed that they respect managers who empower workers and who are open and honest with employees. Martin (2005), who calls this generation Yers, describes eight main characteristics shown by Generation Y towards their careers. These eight characteristics include the Generation Y employee being self-reliant and independent, technosavvy, entrepreneurial, seeking flexibility, having an urgent sense of immediacy, wanting increasing responsibility, having a get off my back attitude and adopting a free agency attitude. Oliver (2006) claims that recent interest in the Generation Y worker has intensified in recent years, and while generalizations are plentiful, he claims that the Generation Y worker is uninterested in a job for life, instead seeking flexibility and work-life balance. Oliver (2006) states that, overall, Generation Y workers are seen to have much higher expectations of a job than previous generations, including high expectations of pay, conditions, promotion and advancement. A study conducted by Kusluvan and Kusluvan (2000) found that some of the factors that seemed to account for the negative attitudes towards careers in tourism, formed after students had undertaken a practical work assignment, are stressful jobs, lack of family life owing to the nature of the work, long working hours, exhausting and seasonal (unstable) jobs, low social status of tourism jobs, unsatisfactory and unfair promotions, low pay and insufficient benefits, unqualified managers, poor attitudes and behavior of managers towards employees, unqualified coworkers and poor attitudes and behavior of coworkers and poor physical working conditions for employees. Subjective Norms Subjective Norms is the degree to which someone wants to conform to others behavior or expectations. Usually, others are individuals (family and friends) whose preferences on a subject matter are important to him or her. This concept was introduced into theory of planned behavior to accommodate the non volitional elements inherent, at least potentially, in all behaviors (Ajzen, 2002). Although schools, peers and the students community all have an impact on the young adults self- identity and career choice, the parents expectations and perceptions of vocational fit for their children have been found to be the key roles in shaping their career choices (Ferry, 2006). In one study (Creamer and Laughlin, 2005), this influence has been so strong as to override the influence of teachers, faculty, and career field in question but were not as well- known and or trusted as to students parents for this type of decision. In an era where 49% of UK workers report that balancing work and family responsibilities is an issue of significant concern to them (IP Morgan Fleming, 2003), the influence of family and personal life and career decisions is receiving increasing amounts of media attention. Todays business school graduates are looking for a work style to go with their lifestyle, claims the HR consultancy Hay Group (The Economist, 2006). Generation X and Generation Y workers who are younger than 40, are more likely than boomers to say they put family before jobs, says an article in USA Today (Elias, 2004). Todays younger employees are working to live rather than living to work, states a newspaper manager in the journalism newsletter Fusion (Williamson, 2006). Thus, the second hypothesis formulated: Perceived Behavioral Control Perceived Behavioral Control (PBC) refers to a persons perception of the ease or difficulty of performing a particular behavior. According to Ajzen (2002), PBC is used to deal with situations where people do not have complete volitional control (i.e. external influences) over the particular behavior in question. An employees perception to any industry will, no doubt, be determined by their commitment, perceptions, and attitudes towards working in the industry as well as the types of jobs available in the industry. It is argued that this is particularly pertinent to tourism and hospitality as it has been reported that potential recruits have a negative image of working in the industry (Aksu and Koksal, 2005; Brien, 2004; Getz, 1994, Kuslavan and Kuslavan, 2000). Several researchers have also studied the perceptions of undergraduate tourism and hospitality management students. Barron and Maxwell (1993) examined the perceptions of new and continuing students at Scottish higher education institutions. They found that in general the new students had positive images of the industry, whereas the students with supervised work experience were much less positive in their views. Baron and Maxwell (19930 found significant differences between the new students perceptions of the industry compared with the students who had undertaken their industry placement. The marked differences in the perceptions of new students compared with those post placement students and graduates lie in the difference between perception and experience in the industry. West and Jameson (1990) agree and claim that the more exposure hospitality students have to the industry, the less commitment they show. 2.5 Behavioral Intention Intention is an anticipated outcome that is intended or that guides your planned actions; in the words of Ajzen, an indication of how hard people are willing to try, of how much effort they are willing to exert in order to perform the behavior. Therefore, the stronger the intention to engage in a behavior, the more likely should be its performance. (p. 181) TPB states that people act in accordance with their intentions and perceptions of control over their behavior, while intentions are influenced by attitudes toward the behavior, subjective norms and perceptions of behavioral control (Ajzen, 1985). Lam and Xiao (2000) found that young and new recruit employees had a high intention to quit the job, or leave the hospitality industry when they found that the salary package of the industry was not as competitive as others, and the pressure at work was unexpectedly high. Tempted by better conditions, higher salaries and increased opportunities for career progression, the young hospitality graduates were turning their backs on the industry and being recruited by large retailing companies (Leslie, 1991) Behavior Hsing (2002) defined behavior as the performance of an action at a certain time, in a certain context and with a certain purpose. Generally, the more favorable the attitude and subjective norm with respect to a behavior and the greater the perceived behavioral control; the stronger an individuals intention should be to perform the behavior under consideration (Ajzen, 1991). However based on varying behaviors and situation, the relative importance of attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control is expected to be different. 2.6 Indicators of Behavioral Intention For the TPB to predict behaviour successfully or for maximum prediction, intention must be measured as closely as possible in time to the observation of the behaviour. The longer the interval between measurement of intention and behaviour, the greater the likelihood that an unforeseen event will occur that will lead to changes in intention and be less predictive of actual behaviour. Nevertheless, this study is not working on actual behaviour, but rather on attitudes and beliefs about the behaviour of choosing a particular career. 2.6.0 Variables of Attitude towards behavior Thus, to measure student attitudes toward behaviour, which in this context meant choosing the programme and direction, or intention to seek a career in hospitality, questions were constructed in such a way so as to shed light on the attitude and beliefs of the undergraduates: 2.6.1 Variables of Subjective Norms A second major predictor of intention in this study is the influence of important people in an individual students life as encouragement and support to perform the behaviour intention. Subjective Norm refers to a favourable or unfavourable student perception of social pressure and the relative importance of different sources of social influence on their intention (decision) to choose a programme and hospitality career. Such social influence might come from immediate family members, peers and friends, teachers and other individual and groups. As stated by Ajzen and Fishbein (1980) an individual will perform or operationalise their behaviours that they perceive as favoured by other people who are important to them. In the present study, there were items used to obtain a direct measure of students perception of significant others and the degree to which they influenced the decision to take a tourism management course. Questions which relate to parents, friends, brothers and sisters and school teachers were constructed to indicate how strongly they agreed or disagreed with such statements. Such questions were: However, according to Ajzen and Fishbein (1980) any relationship between the respondents and the referent (s) will be more or less stable over time. To assess the actual career influencer parallel to those of the students intention, an open ended question was asked:

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Influence of Social Inequalities on Life Chances and Health

Influence of Social Inequalities on Life Chances and Health THE CONTEMPORARY NATURE OF SOCIETY AND THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL INEQUALITIES ON THE LIFE CHANCES AND HEALTH STATUS OF INDIVIDUAL 2.1  Use data to explain inequalities which exist in health and social care Social Inequality is the existence of unequal opportunities and rewards for different social positions or statuses within a group or society (Moffitt, 2015). The distribution of social and healthcare is determined by a wide variety of factors which include individual factors as age, sex, social and national factors. There is growing evidence of inequalities in both the distribution and access to health and social care. In 2016, the equality trust organization in the United Kingdom (UK) reports that, compared with other developed countries, the UK has a very high level of income inequality. They explained that Households in the bottom 10% of the population have on average a net annual income of  £9277 whereas the top 10% have a net annual income over ten times what is earned by the bottom 10%. The implication for this is that the people who fall within the bottom 10% of the population will not be able to access quality health care while at the same time maintaining a good standard of living. It can be said arguably that more than 50% of the incomes of these people are spent on housing. In Great Britain, wealth is even more unequally divided than income. 45% of all wealth is held by the richest 10% and the poorest 50% by contrast own just 8.7% (, 2016). Societys categorization contributes to the difference in life expectancy in different regions. Office for National Statistics (ONS) reports that over a two year span from 2012 to 2014, life expectancy in Kensington and Chelsea was highest in the UK and Blackpool had the lowest life expectancy (74.7) for new born babies. This can be attributed to societys constructs, for example, people in Chelsea and Kensington are classified as rich and therefore have a high standard of living than people in Blackpool who are classified as poor. That means people in the rich communities of Kensington and Chelsea may have longer life expectancy because they can afford better social services than those in Blackpool. Most of the people in these rich communities are gainfully employed and earn much more income even for the same service of job than those in the poor communities. Further to this, a report on Blackpool in 1990 suggests that it is not really social class but the age structure and patterns o f employment of people in the lowest social classes that really explain the differences. Overall, life expectancy has steadily increased in the UK but some communities have higher life expectancy than others (, 2016). However this gap in the life expectancy can be narrowed with evenly distribution and access to health and social care in the society. One of the ways through which inequality in the distribution of health can be measured is morbidity and mortality. ONS reports that cancer was the cause of about 28% deaths that occurred in 2015 and 26% in circulatory diseases. Again, it can arguably be concluded that, people in the high social class bracket are more exposed to such circulatory disease whereas people in the low class bracket die of preventable diseases. In our traditional society, people in the lowest social class have a higher proportion of older people working in more dangerous industries so they are likely to have higher levels of illness than those engage in less dangerous work. The fact that education is a strong predictor of infant and maternal mortality, adult morbidity and mortality and a range of life course developmental and health outcomes is well supported by research evidence (Bartley, 2007). 2.2  Social inequalities from sociological perspective Sociologists study health and illness not only because they go to issues at the center of human existence but because they help us understand how society works (White, 2009). To the sociologist point of view, the experience of sickness and disease is an outcome of how society works. For example, poor living conditions in some parts of Liverpool can be attributed to the cause of diseases and high mortality. In addition, poor housing environment, smoking, drugs, unhealthy eating, obesity, lack of exercise to lose weight all contribute to poor living conditions. Even when living conditions are improved and medical practices also improved but inequalities based on class, gender and ethnicity are not tackled, the difference between the rich and poor will persist and widen. Diseases and inequality are often linked. The outcome of the uneven distribution of political, social and economic resources necessary for a healthy life is the social gradient of health. Those at the top of the social system are healthier and live longer while those at the bottom are sicker and do often die from preventable diseases and accidents. It is assumed that health differences are biological. For example, in Liverpool, a household will be smoking since generation and this contribute to unhealthy life styles and death. Inequalities in health are not only common between people of different socio-economic groups but they can exist between different genders, different ethnic groups, and the elderly. We need to also consider the inter-generational causes of health inequalities. In this instance, inequalities in health are passed from generations. This is not only to do with genetic factors, but the mothers health behaviours during pregnancy and circumstances and behaviour as they raise their children (Barker, 1992). Sociologically, social inequality as a social problem encompasses three dimensions, namely, ideological supports, social reforms and structural condition. Structural conditions include things that contribute to social inequality and can be measured objectively, for example, wealth, poverty, education. Ideological supports are the ideas and assumptions that support social inequality present in a society e.g. formal laws and public policies. Social reforms includes things such as social movements, organized resistance and protest groups. Marxism which views society as conflictual and exploitative holds that inequality in health arise because people value higher profits than health. Marx believed that social class was based on economic factors. The Functionalist theorists believe that inequality is inevitable but desirable and plays an important function in society. As such, a level of inequality is acceptable in society. Important positions in society require more training and thus should receive more rewards such as high pay or status to attract the most talented people. Social stratification and social inequality, according to this view, lead to a meritocracy based on ability. They see modern societies such as UK as meritocratic, to a large extent. By this status is achieved and based on individual ability, occupational positions are allocated. Many sociologists have used the Registrar Generals scale of working class and middle class in the past, in order to measure social class. Conflict theorists, on the other hand, view inequality as a result of groups with power dominating groups with less power. They believe that social inequality hinders societal progress as people in order to maintain the status quo those in power repress the powerless. In todays world, domination is achieved primarily through the power of ideology i.e. our beliefs, views, thoughts, norms, values, world views and expectations through a process known as cultural hegemony. 2.3 How inequalities which exist in health and social care can impact on an individuals health status and life chances. Social inequalities that exist in health and social care impact on the individuals health and life chances. These impacts may be seen as advantage for some group of people but negative for others. The privilege ones who find themselves at the better side of the inequality will be well off than the others. Health is determined by several factors including genetic inheritance, personal behaviors, access to quality health care, and general external environment. The inequalities that exist in health can be measured in terms of inequalities in conditions such as wealth and material goods. The inequality in income affects the access to social care and health. Those with high incomes are better off and can afford to pay for extra services besides the basic ones guaranteed to all by the government. The difference this makes is that, the individual who may be able to afford these extra services is less likely to die from preventable diseases. The individual with low income may enjoy only basic social and health care which may not cover the needs at the moment. The end result of this individual is shorter life expectancy. The inability to afford better housing services and live in better communities exposes the individual to a high morbidity. One aspect of society that is gaining attention in todays society is the discrimination in gender. On Friday, 9th December, 2016, a panelist on ITV news discussion comment toys meant for boys and girls and identifying colours with gender at an early age. According to the discussion, the stereotyping isnt healthy for a society and efforts must be made to reduce and eventually erase the ideology in the minds of children at early age. They are advocating retailers to stop categorizing toys by gender. Like the functionalist theory holds, this form of stereotyping is inevitable thus it can only be reduced and not erased. Gender inequality can still be found also in the workplace today despite equality laws such as the Sex Discrimination Act. Divisions based on gender can be seen in the gender pay gap and under-representation of women in politics. However, the numbers of females going into higher education and entering professional careers such as medicine amongst others is increasing. A persons career and aspirations may not be achieved due to inequality in social care and health. For instance where, the inequality in health is attributed to a genetic issue. The individual may be limited by society in certain endeavours. By reason of a persons impairment, the individual faces stereotyping in the community even in schools. However, this notion is gradually fading out in the UK as efforts are being made to bridge the gap between people of learning ages for example in schools, and visually impaired are provided with brails and learning aids to foster learning. In contemporary Britain, some sociologists, however, see inequality based on ethnicity as the most important cause of social division. For example, members of some minority ethnic groups underperform at school and experience higher levels of unemployment compared with other groups. Women, older people and children are at more risk of poverty than other groups. Other sociologists also argue that inequalities based on gender, ethnicity, class and age are all significant in todays society, and therefore, they are seen as interlinked aspects of inequalities rather than as completely separate aspects. People of African Caribbean background are more likely to be in occupations that are classified as working class. This impact on their chances of upward social mobility. This may also have consequences for their childrens life chances including educational opportunities. Many sociologists argue that social class remains an important concept because social class still impacts on peoples daily lives. Class-based inequalities in life chances persist in the 21st century. So, while class may have changed, it has not declined. Over the last 40 years, reforms in such areas as education and employment have addressed different aspects of gender inequality. For example, introduction of anti-discrimination laws such as the Equal Pay Act (1970) by government to reduce gender inequalities. Other reforms and policies have been made to address inequality based on ethnicity in areas such as education, employment, and criminal justice. Through funding bodies such as the Equality and Human Rights Commission which enforces equality laws governments have tried to reduce inequalities between different ethnic groups as well as through legislature such as the Race Relations Act in the 1970s. In conclusion, although there has been a reduction in social inequalities in our society, there exists however, a gradient between people from affluent backgrounds and individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds. For a fact, a country where wealth is evenly distributed, these kinds of issues of social inequalities are at minimum. But until the UK gets to a level of even wealth distribution, efforts and continued vigilance will be required by all to help curb the problem. References Barker, DJP, editor. Fetal and infant origins of adult disease. London: BMJ Books; 1992. Bartley, M., Head, J. and Stansfeld, S. (2007). Is attachment style a source of resilience against health inequalities at work?. Social Science Medicine, 64(4), pp.765- 775. (2016). The Scale of Economic Inequality in the UK | The Equality Trust. [online] Available at: [Accessed 14 Dec. 2016]. Haralambos, M. and Holborn, M. (2008). Sociology: Themes and Perspectives. London: Collins. Health Knowledge. (2016). Inequalities in the distribution of health and health care and its access, including inequalities relating to social class, gender, culture and ethnicity, and their causes. [online] Available at: policy-economics/4c-equality-equity-policy/inequalities-distribution [Accessed 14 Dec. 2016]. Moffitt, K. (2015). What Is Social Inequality in Sociology? Definition, Effects Causes [online] Available at: effects-causes.html [Accessed 14 Dec. 2016]. Nettleton, S (1995). The Sociology of Health Illness (2016). Deaths registered in England and Wales- Office for National Statistics.[online]Availablat: es/deaths/bulletins/deathsregistrationsummarytables/2015 [Accessed 14 Dec. 2016]. (2016). Life expectancies- Office for National Statistics. [online] Available at: es/lifeexpectancies [Accessed 14 Dec. 2016]. White, K (2009). An Introduction to the Sociology of Health Illness. 2nd ed. SAGE Publications. Los Angeles. Appendix

Monday, August 19, 2019

Fern Hill :: essays research papers

The poem "Fern Hill", by Dylan Thomas, is being told by a speaker who is recalling his youthful past. Many images, symbols, and metaphors increase the depth of the speaker's message to the reader. An image that is spoke about alot in the poem is the color of gold. Gold is usually used with youthful objects. Gold represents vibrance. Vibrance is usually associated with youth. Gold appears in the following locations: "Golden in the heydays of his eyes" "Trail with daisies and barley" "Golden in the mercy of his means," "And green and golden I was huntsman and herdsman, the calves" "And the sun grew round that very day." "In the sun born over and over," "Before the children green and golden" A symbol in the poem occurs: "And honoured among wagons I was prince of the apple towns." Princes are those who have a lot of political and social power. What separates them from kings, is that princes are generally young, at least younger than their fathers. Many metaphors concerning the opposite of youth, aging, are located in the entirety of the last stanza of the poem. " Nothing I cared, in the lamb white days, that time would take me Up to the swallow thronged loft by the shadow of my hand, In the moon that is always rising, Nor that riding to sleep I should hear him fly with the high fields And wake to the farm forever fled from the childless land. Oh as I was young and easy in the mercy of his means, Time held me green and dying Though I sang in my chains like the sea." "In the moon that is always rising" reveals that the speaker has experiances what seems like countless days and nights. "The childless land" means that where the speaker was before, everyone has grown up by now.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

The Different Reasons for Marriage Shown in Pride and Prejudice :: Pride and Prejudice Essays

Marriage was a central theme in Jane Austen's book "Pride and Prejudice" as in her time marriage was done when the women were quite young. Jane Austen uses this book to express her emotion that women didn't have much of a say in many things and they weren't allowed to work and shouldn't learn. Jane Austin's book shows us three main reasons to get married the first is that people should get married for money, another reason to get married is for passion, and the final reason to get married is to marry out of love. A financial marriage was a great prospect for Charlotte as she had an unknown amount of brothers and sisters and if her father died and she wasn't married she would have to borrow money from her brothers, she also knew it was a good marriage with Mr Collins as he was to come into a lot of money very soon as the story say that: "Mr Collin's present circumstance made it a most eligible match for their daughter, to whom they could give little fortune; and his prospects of future wealthy were exceedingly fair". Lady Catherine De Bourgh doesn't believe in love as she wants all marriages to stay in the family and she wanted to keep the wealth in the family but she also didn't want her family to marry people in lower classes of work to be in her family. "You have no regard, then, for the honour and credit fro my nephew! Unfeeling, selfish girl! Do you not consider that a connection with you, must disgrace him in the eyes of everybody?" Mrickham tries to marry Miss King but her parents successfully protect her, as he would gain about  £10,000 pounds from her, he would then divorce her and run off with Mr Bennets daughter Lydia for his passionate needs, then Mr Darcy pays Mr Wickham to marry Lydia so that he can marry Elizabeth. Mrs Bennet treats marriage as a business as she wants her daughters to get married so that if Mr Bennet should die they her family would have somewhere to stay. The marriage between Mr and Mrs Gardiner is based on their love for each other and their family, they show their love for their family when they give great advice to Elizabeth about Mr Darcy, also when they take Elizabeth around part of England and will look after her. When Mr Bingley and Jane meet each other they instantly fall in love and meet much more often and will get married after a great deal of obstacles put in they way by his sisters and one put in the way by Mr

Saturday, August 17, 2019

A Critique Of American Sandwich Essay

The whole article tells a true story that happened when the author was a little kid. The Author moved from Portugal to American along with his parents. With so special family background, the author aspire to American Sandwiches rather than thick sliced ham and vegetables wrapped with large loaf of bread. Actually, it reflects the expectations of author that could be a strong desire to touch American cultures and fit into American social circles. Throughout the articleï ¼Å'Edite Cunha utilize the conversation between his mother and him as well as the mental activities behaved by him to describe his vivid dream of owning the sunbeam bread. The frequent transform of the scenes are better to draw the attention of the readers to focus on the rhythm of the story. I think each person has undergone same experience during his or her early stage of life. Take mine experience as an example, I was born in a remote town of a small city, when I was 10 years old, I moved out of the small town to the central areas of the city. I begun to study with these â€Å"urban kids†Ã¯ ¼Å'it took a quite long period for me to get rid of the loneliness. Because we are wired to feel fear whenever we stepping into an unfamiliar environment, this is why I stick to face the question and become more positive. Currentlyï ¼Å'I am logging for the American lifestyle, observing and mimicking people surround me.

Equality between Man and Women’s Controversy

Equality has been a controversial issue ever since time began. Whether it be race, sex, or religion, it has always been an unsettled topic of concern. Equality between men and women is often brought into society. I think men and women should be treated equal from all perspectives. Gender is what makes women different from men, but does not make women incapable of compiling valuable choices. Women and men have the ability to make decisions that will benefit all people in a fair way. As it is, men are most often oted into our government for their ability to make law abiding decisions. It is my personnel belief that women have the intelligence to do the same. The views of John and Abigail Adams, as well as Benjamin Rush, illustrate the different opinions regarding John and Abigail Adams have animosity relating to the subject of equality. My interpretation is that Abigail Adams believes that women should be recognized in the republican society. Abigail threatens a rebellion if herself and other women are not given he attention and care they so desire. She speaks of the neglect in education to the daughters whereas John thinks the sons are being deprived of education. John Adams plainly laughs at his wife†s remarks. He explains the turbulence that has broken out among governments everywhere, due to the absolute power of husbands over their wives. It is brought to me that John Adams believes, and will forever believe, in the absolute power of men in the republican society. Abigail Adams feels that women should have ore of an opportunity in the republican society. John Adams believes that the masculine system is fine as it is. According to Benjamin Rush, women†s education is extremely important. He believes that female education should be accommodated to the welfare of society, manner, and the government of the country. As I understand it, Rush wants women to be educated in these things so that they can intelligently instruct their children in the same way. He ensures that learning vocal music will make domestic life more soothing and ossibly easier. It will take away the distress of noisy children and a husband. Benjamin Rush looks highly upon novels and believes that reading them will make a young lady more of a humanitarian. He states that some men think of a woman that is educated in morals, physical and religious truth, is unfriendly to the domestic character of a women. He goes on to say that this statement is the prejudice of men with little minds. Primarily, Rush concludes that if females were better educated, they would be more useful in domestic life. Children would learn wisdom in all aspects if their mothers were better educated. Benjamin Rush is a smart man and I agree with a lot of his writing. Men and women should always be treated as equals. John and Abigail had a different opinion on that. She believed they should and he believed they shouldn†t. Rush believed that if women were educated on the same things as men, life all together would Equality has long been a major issue in society. As for myself, there is no reason that any one person should be treated better or worse than the next.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Harlem’s darkness and hardships

Baldwin’s â€Å"Sonny’s Blues† is a story of the two brothers living in Harlem. Harlem is the place where the two brothers experienced the darkness of the society. This darkness points out racism and drug abuse as one of the major problems experiencing by many African-American in Harlem. Even though racism was felt by the two brothers and drug abuse hunted Sonny, one of the two brothers, they still managed to adopt and survive through the help of each other. At the beginning of the story, the older brother is on his way to work as a schoolteacher.As he travels down the road, he also reads the newspaper and found out that his brother was caught dealing with heroine. Even before, Sonny was suspected by his older brother of using illegal drugs but the older brother does nothing. Before the drug related incident happens, the older brother who is also the narrator of the story always talks about Sonny as being a good brother. He says â€Å"When Sonny was young, his f ace was bright and open†. Sonny’s brother worries about the involvement of Sonny in illegal drugs.Sonny is being dependent on drugs and uses it as a way to escape his problems. This problem makes his brother think of the things he did wrong to make Sonny involved in drug addiction. As a result of that, the brother misinterprets all the acts Sonny is doing. He does not listen to Sonny even if it has to be about the explanation and reasons of why Sonny engaged to drug related activities. Sonny finds himself neglected by his brother. This makes him think that no one could help him but his own self. Realizing this, he diverts his attention to music.This involvement to music makes him finds the relief he is searching for. With the music playing, Sonny is able to escape the problems he is encountering. The improvement of Sonny is hardly noticed by his brother. At first, his involvement to music disappoints his brother not until his brother realizes the changes music has done to Sonny. His brother accepts the truth and realizes that music has done a good job to Sonny’s development. It all happened in the part of the story where his brother is listening to Sonny as he plays the piano.As Sonny plays the piano, his brother feels that Sonny need his guidance and love. The unconditional love by the brother to Sonny was depicted in the story. Listening to the Jazz music played by Sonny, the attitude of the brother towards life, himself and Sonny changes. The estrangement of the two brothers hurt them both. Sonny’s dedication to music and his determination to stay away from any form of illegal drugs move the older brother to change. The love and passion of both brothers are shown in the story.Their fight against the darkness in Harlem made them realize that to win is to accept the weakness of each one of them and to be able to survive is to help each other. As a final point, to be able to survive in a society where you are not the main character, you must learn to adapt and to help others that are also adapting. The challenges of Black American brothers in the time of racism and its fight against illegal drugs can be solve if trust, acceptance and love is within the family ties.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Futile dreams in Of mice and men Essay

How far do you think Steinbeck presents dreams as futile in of mice and men? Steinbeck presents a lot of dreams as futile in his novel of Mice and Men. All the characters dreams are different in their own personal way but all of their dreams come to be in a different place to where they are at now. They all yearn for something better in their lives. The underlying theme of futile dreams in this novel is expressed throughout Steinbeck’s novel throughout many characters. The main dream in the novel of mice and men is that of George and Lennie living of the â€Å"fatta the lan'† getting their own place, being self-sufficient and not have to work on the ranch. The two of them are best friends and how different they may seem in the novel they both share this common goal; â€Å"Some day we’re gonna get the jack together and we’re gonna have a little house and a couple of acres an’ a cow and some pigs and†¦Ã¢â‚¬  This shows they have thought about what they want in every little detail and truly believe it will happen. Their ambition, as they put it, is to â€Å"Get the jack together,† purchase a few acres of land and call it their own. They want to be in their own little place where they are not scrutinised by society; to be away for others in the big wide world where it seems Lennie is not supposed to be. George and Lennie are not unique in wanting this dream but unique in the fact that they have each other and can rest on each other through their dream. They want to be in a place with no rules or regulations. This dream is so appealing that Candy and Crooks want to join the dream of owning their own farm. This is because George and Lennie are close to reaching their dream so Candy and Crooks can actually be part of it for once instead of dreaming it; they can create it. This dream of George and Lennie also appeals to them as they can refer to the same things that they want for themselves but have never had the chance to go ahead with or the chance to achieve that goal. However, perhaps this dream only appeals to them because they see it as something that can be reached and will not remain a dream. They want to be able to live out this dream even if it is someone else’s. In section three, a section of narration shows how much they all want this dream; â€Å"They all sat still, all bemused by the beauty of the thing; each mind was popped into the future when this lovely thing should come about.† This quote shows that they all want this dream so much and really believe it will happen as it is no longer a dream as it says ‘when’ it will come about and not ‘if’. Steinbeck presents this dream of Lennie and George as being futile by speaking through Crooks when he says that he’s; â€Å"seen hundreds of men come by road an’ on the ranches, with bindles on their backs an’ that same damn thing in their heads. Hundreds of them. They come, an’ they quit an’ go on; every damn one of em’s got a little piece of land in his head. An’ never a god damn one of the get it. Just like Heaven,† by this quote I feel that Crooks has best summed up this dream as futile as he shows he has wised up to the dream and is starting to have second thoughts of joining them in the dream. He is brought back to the present when he figures that Lennie and George are just like the rest of the men that come on the ranch with a ‘little piece of land in his head’ and that their goal is never achieved. He is treating Lennie and George like their stereotype. Candy and Crooks want to join in this dream for different reasons; Crooks does not want to be an outcast anymore and wants to feel accepted in some way, Candy wants to join to have something to take his mind of his dog (his only companion) being killed. Although these are the main reasons Crooks and Candy want to join in these dreams they both come down to one thing. They don’t want to be alone. Unlike Lennie, Curley’s wife wants to experience the world for herself and has already had the opportunity of becoming the next up and coming movie star where she ‘coulda been in the pitchers’ snatched away from her; â€Å"He says he was gonna put me in the movies. Says I was a natural. Soon’ he got back to Hollywood he was gonna write to me about it.† Se is a virtual prisoner in her own home with which she has no power to change her fate. Curley’s wife will never live out this dream as she has dedicated the rest if her life to her husband who is unbeknown to her capabilities. She once had a dream but when she married her entire life changed, and not for the better. Curley’s wife has resigned herself to an unfulfilling marriage. What makes all of these dreams typically futile is that the dreamers wish for unbreakable happiness, for the freedom to follow their own desires. George and Lennie’s dream of owning a farm, which would enable them to look after themselves, and, most important, offer them protection from an unwelcoming world, represents a prototypically ideal life. Their journey, which shows George the impossibility of the dream, sadly proves that the bitter Crooks was right; such freedom, contentment, and safety are not to be found. By killing Lennie, George gets rid of a huge burden and a threat to his own life. He is forced to shoot both his companion, who made him different from the other lonely workers, as well as his own dream and admit that it has gone hopelessly wrong. He has the new burden of hopelessness and loneliness. Slim’s comfort at the end of the novel; â€Å"You hadda George† indicates the sad truth that one has to surrender one’s dreams in order to survive, not the easiest thing to do but something that one has no choice but to do in circumstances. Curley’s wife has already had her dream of being an actress pass her by and now must live a life of no hope. Crooks’ situation hints at a much deeper one than that of the white person in a place where black people are discriminated. Through Crooks, Steinbeck exposes the bitterness, the anger, and the helplessness of the black man who struggles to be recognized as a human being, let alone have a place of his own. Crooks’ hopelessness underlies that of George’s and Lennie’s and Candy’s and Curley’s wife’s. But all share the despair of wanting to change the way they live and attain something better; to have a dream. Even Slim, despite his wisdom and confidence towards this unattainable dream, has nothing to call his own and will remain a migrant worker until his death. Slim differs from the others in the fact that he does not seem to want something outside of what he has, he is not beaten by a dream, and he has not relied on a drea m to fulfill his life and is thankful for what he has. Slim seems to have somehow reached the sad conclusion indicated by the novel that to dream leads to, despair and ineffective, Futile dreams that lead to nothing but disappointment. This book makes you decide, should I be realistic or should I try and make my dreams come true?

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

George Orwell Webquest

His experience in Sp Alan was the defining moment of Rowel's political awakening. He left Spain with a life Eng hatred of totalitarianism, and this stance formed the basis of all of his following work s. 3. The book Animal Farm reflects on events leading up to the Russian Revolution of 191 7 and then onto the Stalin era in the Soviet Union. It was critical of Joseph Stalin and based off of Rowel's belief that the Soviet union had become a brutal dice tutorship. The novel is an allegory. 4. 1984 was published on June 8th, 1949. The novel was based on a British Labor Party.Orwell warned against the Russian state. Orwell died in a London hoses tall on January 21 SST, 1950. Topic II Totalitarianism Totalitarianism is the political concept that the citizen should be totally subject t to an absolute state authority. 2. Bonito Mussolini coined the term totalitarian to describe the new fascist state of Italy. 3. Three examples of totalitarian are Italy in the 1 sass and Germany and Japan I n the asses. 4. Stalin transformed the Russian economy as part of his five year plan by rapid growth Of heavy industry and increased farm production through acclimatization of agric ultra.Russian's totalitarian state controlled people and the media with Stalin's used propaganda, censorship, and terror to force his will on the Soviet people, the government newspapers glorified work and Stalin himself, and secret police s pied on citizens, and anyone who refused to praise Stalin and the state faced severe punishment, even death 5. Mussolini's totalitarian party was called fascist party 6. Three ways Mussolini and his party controlled the media were appointing Fast cists to top offices, censoring the press, and organizing a secret police, and banning a y criticism of the government. 7. Everything in the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state. † was Mussolini's well known slogan. 8. The purges occurred in 1 930 and were aimed at extermination Of those who o opp osed industrialization and the kulaks (Wolff farmers and entrepreneurs, who opposed acclimatization). 9. 36% of the communist party membership was purged. 10. The purge of the Red Army Officer Corps was a power play which resulted in S Italian consolidating his power as leader of the Soviet Union. During the prewar peer d he systematically imprisoned and/ or executed thousands of his own military officers.

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

The gender pay gap in the uk and why it still exists Essay

The gender pay gap in the uk and why it still exists - Essay Example Workplace segregation remains prevalent as high concentrations of female employees are associated with relatively low rates of pay. And higher levels of part-time working are associated with lower rates of pay, even after other factors have been taken into account. Women’s employment is highly concentrated in female-dominated occupations which are often the lowest paid. Women are still under-represented in the higher paid jobs within occupations. Qualified women are characteristically denied top level jobs in corporate offices but instead of terming it what it is, sexism and discrimination, this form of unequal treatment is referred to as the ‘glass ceiling’ effect. Women do indeed have to perform twice as well as a man to retain the same pay and position at similar occupational arenas. This discussion will examine barriers to equality in the workplace, the reasons for this cultural phenomenon, evidence to support this claim and some possible solutions. Women must struggle to cope with discrimination in the workplace as is evidenced by occupational segregation. This terminology refers to the reality that women tend to work in different sectors of the economy and occupy different employment standings than men within the same occupational group. Government statistics reveal that women are highly concentrated in certain jobs as 60 per cent of working women are employed in just 10 per cent of available occupations (â€Å"What is the pay gap?†, 2006). While about one-half of workers are in sex-dominated employment, women are engaged in a narrower scope of occupations than men. There are seven times more male-dominated non-agricultural jobs than female. ‘Sex-dominated’ occupations are defined as when workers of one sex constitute more than 80 per cent of the labour force (Anker, 1998). In the UK, women constitute just 30 per cent of managers, 25 per cent of executives and 10 per

Monday, August 12, 2019

Unit 1 - Business Enviroment + Unit Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 7500 words

Unit 1 - Business Enviroment + Unit - Coursework Example erent organizations, there are however four basic goals that an organization focuses on like survival in the growing competitive market, enhancing profits through increased sales and reduced production costs, growth and expansion, and capturing increasing share of the national and international markets. Since most organizations essentially seek profits therefore making maximum profit becomes the most important objective of the owners. However, there are some organizations like the charitable organizations whose principle purpose is to provide service to people. In the beginning of any business, an organization has no goodwill in the market nor does it have loyal customers. Therefore, in the initial stage the key objective remains survival which can be achieved through good marketing and promotional strategies. With the growth of the business, profit making becomes the most important objective. In most organizations, it is the owners who decide what the objectives should be for a give n period; however there are other stakeholders who can also give their views and opinions. Stakeholders are any group of people who have interest in the activities of the business organization which can be managers, employees, suppliers and customers. When a stakeholder’s interest is considered then it is known as stakeholder consideration like owners giving up part of their profits to pay bonus to the employees in order to motivate them to focus harder towards fulfilling the objectives of the concerned organization (BBC, 2014). The objectives of a business organization are subjected to change for both internal reasons, like business expansion, and external reasons, such as economic depression. When a profitable business gets negatively affected by economic depression like decreasing sales, it may change its goal from profit maximization goal to survival as it may become difficult to maintain the same level of output. Organizational objectives and missions are some of the vit al

Sunday, August 11, 2019

Professional Learning Communities Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Professional Learning Communities - Assignment Example n ongoing, job-embedded; results driven and a professional development model that fosters collegiality and collaboration among the entire education setting. Alternatively, the intellectual goal of the mission was attained by contributing to some of the existing research bodies, which informs regarding the professional development practices (Baccellieri, 2010). Before implementing the process, the school had to communicate its vision first. In this case, individuals involved had to begin developing a shared vision that was grounded towards mutual understanding and trust. The vision in this case was supposed to be important while making important decisions regarding the learning institution. Alternatively, the vision was to show commitment of the school in attaining long-term objectives (Baccellieri, 2010). Therefore, the first step during the implementation process was to have a belief thus, how the school members were seeing the world, capabilities and skills that are conducive to the change. The principle of the school advocated for a person-centered type of approach especially towards the staff management. Alternatively, the development of the teachers became a priority. The second approach during the implementation process was building the relationships between the learners and the teachers. The focus in this case was the cognitive dimensions regarding the staff’s job (Buffum, 2009). The relationships were also built through recreational ways. Most of the activities done here were instrumental in building an effective atmosphere of trust among the members of the institution. After building the relationship between the members of the institution, the third principle during the implementation process was empowerment. In this case, the process entailed enabling the students, staff and the parents into participation and the contribution of emerging expertise for the benefit of the institution. In doing this, several circulating logistical information systems