Monday, September 30, 2019

Understand the Relationship Between Organizational Structure and Culture

Introduction The aim of this unit is to give learners an understanding of individual and group behaviour in organisations and to examine current theories and their application in managing behaviour in the workplace. Areas of Learning 1 Understand the relationship between organisational structure and culture Types of organisation and associated structures, organisational culture, Diagnosing behavioral problems, perception, significance and of individual difference, Individual behaviour at work 2 Understand different approaches to management and leadershipDevelopment of management thought, functions of management, managerial roles, nature of managerial authority, Frames of reference for leadership activities 3 Understand ways of using motivational theories in organisations Motivation theories, motivation and performance, leadership, Leadership and successful change in organizations 4 Understand mechanisms for developing effective teamwork in organisations Teams and team building, team dynamics, Impact of technology on team functioning: 1|Page BTEC HND in Business/ Organisation and Behaviour/Sept12 -BLANK PAGE- 2|PageBTEC HND in Business/ Organisation and Behaviour/Sept12 UNIT INTRODUCTION This unit focuses on the behaviour of individuals and groups within organisations. It explores the links between the structure and culture of organisations and how these interact and influence the behaviour of the workforce. The structure of a large multinational company, with thousands of employees worldwide, will be very different from a small local business with 20 employees. The way in which an organisation structures and organises its workforce will impact on the development of its culture.A collection of shared values and beliefs will determine and shape the accepted patterns of behaviour of an organisations workforce. Depending upon various factors such as type of industry/sector of the economy, culture of the external community in which the organization operates, physica l environment, profile of the workforce, and size, the cultures of different organizations can vary significantly. The structure and culture of an organisation are key factors that contribute to motivating the workforce at all levels of the organisation.The Japanese were instrumental in developing a culture of ‘continuous improvement through teamwork’ in their manufacturing industry. This feature of a culture has now been exported around the world and plays a major role in the way in which structure and culture contribute to patterns of behaviour in the workplace. This unit, through studying the dynamic relationships between structure and culture, will help learners to appreciate how these two aspects of a business organization can impact the behavior and outcomes of its workforce.SCENARIO You are newly appointed store manager of one of the biggest TESCOS supermarkets in Ireland with members of staff from different cultural and racial background, which required an organ izational culture, teamwork, and participatory decision making style, in order to achieve your short-term and long-term goals. You were recommended to the CEO and Board of Directors to take the above position based on your achievements as a Mini TESCOS supermarket in London.As part of your responsibilities, you are also required to apply different management styles and motivational theories, in order to achieve positive results from the company’s activities. In order to achieve the above objectives, you have to complete the following four (4) tasks: 3|Page BTEC HND in Business/ Organisation and Behaviour/Sept12 Task 1: Understand the relationship between organisational structure and culture 1. 1 Compare and contrast three different organizational structures and cultures. 1. 2 Explain how the relationship between an organization’s tructure and culture can influence on the performance of the TESCOS’ activities at this Irish site. 1. 3 Identify and provide an overv iew of four factors that can influence individual behavior in the workplace at the Irish TESCOS. Task 2:Understand different approaches to management and leadership 2. 1: Compare and contrast three different leadership styles for three different business organizations. 2. 2: Explain how organizational theory underpins the practice of management for the Irish TESCOS scenario. 2. 3: Evaluate four different approaches to management used by different organizations.Task 3: Understand ways of using motivational theories in organisations 3. 1 Discuss how different leadership styles may impact employee motivation in organizations in periods of change. In tackling this task, discuss to what extent specific leadership styles may positively or negatively could affect performance in specific change scenarios (e. g. adoption of new staff rota, etc. ). Please provide how this could help with a change at TESCOS in Ireland. 3. 2 Identify and discuss the application of three different motivational t heories within the workplace. 3. Evaluate the usefulness of a motivation theory for managers at the TESCOS in Ireland. Task 4: Understand mechanisms for developing effective teamwork in organisations 4. 1 Explain the nature of groups and group behaviour within organizations. 4. 2 Discuss factors that may promote or inhibit, limit, or undermine the development of effective teamwork in organizations (physical, social, etc. ) 4. 3 Evaluate the impact of technology on team functioning within such an organization as TESCOS in Ireland. 4|Page BTEC HND in Business/ Organisation and Behaviour/Sept12Submissions Deadlines Tasks 1 (Assignment) 2 (Assignment) 3 & 4 (Assignment) Submissions Guidelines Deadline 4th Week of September 3rd week of October 4th week of November Hardcopy of the assignment should be submitted at the college reception on or before at 4. 00 pm on the date specified. There is no stipulated length for the work but it should not be less exceed 3000 words for all tasks. All w ork must be delivered in softcopy versions. The softcopy should be uploaded on to the security purposes, learners should keep both copies with them. All be properly referenced. han 2000 words or both hardcopy and student portal. For assignments should 5|Page BTEC HND in Business/ Organisation and Behaviour/Sept12 Assessment Information Grading Criteria All Assignments will be assessed according to the following grading. Pass: To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate the ability to: LO1 Understand the relationship between organisational structure and culture 1. 1 compare and contrast different organisational structures and culture 1. 2 explain how the relationship between an organisation’s structure and culture can impact on the performance of the business 1. discuss the factors which influence individual behaviour at work LO2 Understand different approaches to management and leadership 2. 1 compare the effectiveness of different leadership styles in different organi sations 2. 2 explain how organisational theory underpins the practice of management 2. 3 evaluate the different approaches to management used by different organisations LO3 Understand ways of using motivational theories in organisations 3. 1 discuss the impact that different leadership styles may have on motivation in organisations in periods of change 3. compare the application of different motivational theories within the workplace 3. 3 evaluate the usefulness of a motivation theory for managers LO4 Understand mechanisms for developing effective teamwork in organisations 4. 1 explain the nature of groups and group behaviour within organisations 4. 2 discuss factors that may promote or inhibit the development of effective teamwork in organisations 4. 3 evaluate the impact of technology on team functioning within a given organisation. 6|Page BTEC HND in Business/ Organisation and Behaviour/Sept12 Merit and Distinction: The grade descriptors provide a framework for the reation of gra ding criteria to be written and set within the context of the assignment. The grade descriptors describe the expected qualities of the learner’s work at Merit and distinction levels. The merit and distinction levels have three descriptors. Merit Descriptors: M1- Identify and apply strategies to find appropriate solutions. Answers reflect that effective judgments have been made about the specific content and the information. The answers show that an effective approach to study and research has been applied within the scenario e. g. comparing features, theories and models comparison etc.M2 – Select /Design and apply appropriate methods / techniques An accurate standard method has been used in defining information sources is well justified and summarized. M3 – Present and communicate appropriate findings A clear, accurate standard for presenting information has been used in terms of diagrams, charts, tables. Distinction Descriptors D1- Use Critical reflection to ev aluate own work and justify valid conclusions Proper evaluation and justification shown in all the answers and relevant conclusions have been arrived at thorough synthesis of ideas.D2- Take responsibility for managing and organizing activities Independence – Tasks have been attempted with minimal assistance provided by the lecturer D3- Demonstrate convergent/lateral/ creative thinking Ideas have been generated and proper evaluation and decisions taken based on facts gathered within the scenario 7|Page BTEC HND in Business/ Organisation and Behaviour/Sept12 Assessment Marking Grid Task Assessment Criteria (A. C) 1. 1 Pass Merit Distinction ? ? –M1 -M2 D2 —-D1 D3 —D1 — One 1. 2 1. 3 2. 1 Two 2. 2 ? 2. 3 3. 1 Three 3. 2 3. ? -Four 4. 1 4. 2 ? 4. 3 ? -? -? M3 —- ? ? ? ? 8|Page BTEC HND in Business/ Organisation and Behaviour/Sept12 Assignment Instructions Students are requested to comply with the following instructions on handing in their assign ment work †¢ †¢ Work should be comprehensively referenced Sources must be acknowledged fully by reference books, journals used and URL visited Include the Harvard Referencing System (guide is available on the college resources portal) All work should be word-processed, font size of 12 and font style of Times New Roman or Arial.Subtitles of the assignment should be in the font size of 14. Pages should be numbered in bottom right hand corner Spell check the document and read thoroughly for grammatical errors 1. 5-line spacing is preferable Bibliography at the end of the assignment All paragraphs should be aligned in justified mode. †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ 9|Page BTEC HND in Business/ Organisation and Behaviour/Sept12 References Textbooks Buchanan, D. and Huczynski, A. (2004) Organizational Behaviour: An Introduction Text (5th Ed). Harlow: Prentice Hall. French, W. Bell, C. (1984) Organization development: behavioral science Interventions for o rganization improvement. (3rd ed. ) New Jersey: Prentice hall Kinicki, A. and Kreitner, R. (2006) Organizational Behavior: key concepts, skills, & best practices ( 2nd ed. ) McGraw Hill Mullins, L. (2007) Management and Organizational Behaviour. (8th ed. ) London: FT/Prentice Hall Robbins, S. & Judge, T. (2008) Essentials of Organizational Behavior (9th Ed. ) New Jersey: Pearson/Prentice Hall Smith, M. et al (1982) Introducing organizational behavior.London: Macmillan Brooks I — Organisational Behaviour, Individuals, Groups and Organisation 2nd Edition(Prentice Hall, 2003) ISBN: 0877781265 Huczynski A and Buchanan D — Organisational Behaviour: An Introductory Text (Prentice Hall, 2000) ISBN: 0273651021 Maccoby M — Why Work: Motivating and Leading the New Generation (Simon and Schuster, New York, 1998) ISBN: 067147281X (Outlines the changing nature of the workplace and categorises people into five types, giving the characteristics and sources of motivation and de motivation of each. ) 10 | P a g e BTEC HND in Business/ Organisation and Behaviour/Sept12

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Pay for Performance Essay

Prior to the 2000s, fee-for-service systems dominated how health care providers received payment for providing care to patients. Under the fee-for-service system, physicians received payments, according to the volume of patients and the complexity of services. Two reports written by the Institute of Medicine clearly substantiated serious deficiencies in the quality of health care in the United States. The findings prompted the need to develop initiatives to pay health care workers based on quality. The following discussion defines pay-for-performance, explains the effects of reimbursement under this approach, details the impact of system cost reductions on the quality and efficiency of health care, the effects of this model on health care providers and customers, and the effect pay-for-performance will have on the future of health care. The Definition of Pay for Performance Pay for performance models reward providers, such as physicians, other health care providers, hospitals, and medical groups under contract for meeting pre-established performance measures to improve quality and efficiency in health care delivery. It is popular among policy makers and private and public payers, such as Medicare and Medicaid. The first initiative adopted by one of the nation’s largest health care plans, PacifiCare Health Systems, began paying medical groups in California bonuses for meeting or exceeding 10 clinical and service quality targets in 2003 (Meredith, Richard, Zhonghe, & Arnold, 2005). Service quality targets included five patient-reported measures of service quality, five ambulatory care quality indicators, and a set of hospital quality measures for referring patients to high-quality hospitals. The criteria in the first year required medical groups to acquire a minimum of 1000 PacifiCare Commercial and 100 Secure Horizons enrollees. Research showed the network of California medical groups, under contract to improve performance goals, outweighed the performance measure of another medical group not under contract, Pacific Northwest, for cervical cancer screening by a significance of 3.6%. Of 163 eligible physician groups, 97 (60%) received a distribution of funds from the program related to at least 1 physician group quality performance target in the first quarter of the QIP. In the last payout based on the original set of targets (April 2004), 129 of 172 (75%) groups reached at least 1 physician group quality target. (Meredith, Richard, Zhonghe, & Arnold, 2005, para. 26) Only 14 medical groups exceeded more than half of the performance targets. The pay-for-performance approach showed an inverse relationship where physician groups with lower performance improved the most whereas physician groups that previously achieved target goals improved the least. The Effects of Reimbursement under Pay for Performance The article Early Experience With Pay-For-Performance: From Concept to Practice (Meredith, Richards, Zhonghe, & Arnold, 2005) argues this approach to improving the quality of care fulfills multiple objectives. One positive impact of pay-for-performance suggests paying health care providers for meeting certain quality indicators increases performance. The authors claim low-performing health care providers improved because they viewed the landscape of health care delivery changing by the mounting pressure of payees to improve their health care systems and decided to remain in good standing. Low-performing health care providers contend they cannot achieve benchmark levels of performance because of barriers beyond their control, such as limited resources or low-socioeconomic, patient populations. A negative impact of pay-for-performance indicates high-performing health care providers meeting target levels have no incentive to improve their performance and thus offer status quo health care services to their patients. Another reason health care providers have no incentive to produce services beyond the norm indicates low rewards paid by insurance networks. â€Å"Paying for improvement fails to reward and even penalizes providers that have already achieved high levels of health care quality at the time a pay-for-performance program is initiated† (Meredith, Richards, Zhonghe, & Arnold, 2005, para. 32). For the reasons stated above, the distribution of rewards primarily goes to the group of providers with low-performing standards and increases the impact of pay-for-performance. Impact of System Cost Reductions on Quality and Efficiency of Health Care Evidence of pay-for-performance shows mixed results. One study, Premier Hospital Quality Incentive Demonstration, performed by Rachel M. Werner of the University of Pennsylvania, compared the improvements in quality for hospitals paid incentives to a control group of hospitals who did not receive incentives from 2004 – 2008. The results reflected minor significance in improvement in the quality and efficiency of health care. In fact, diminishing returns occurred after the fifth year (Health Policy Brief, 2012)(See Figure 1). Other pay-for-performance initiatives, such as the Medicare Premier Hospital Quality Incentive, rolled out at the same time as Werner’s study, which analysts profess as the reason behind the improvement in quality and efficiency of health care among hospitals. Like health care providers, hospitals did not want to endure the embarrassment of presenting an image lacking in quality care. They sought to clean up their acts in anticipation of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implementing pay-for-performance measures in health care. A project conducted between 2005 and 2010, the Medicare Physician Group Practice Demonstration, focused on quality and cost. Researchers of Dartmouth College and the National Bureau for Economic Research analyzed doctors, who would receive bonuses for achieving lower cost growth and meeting quality targets, in 10 large physician group practices. They found improvement in the quality of care but little reduction in the growth of spending for most Medicare patients (Health Policy Brief, 2012). Effects on Health Care Providers and Customers Health care providers agree with the need to improve quality of care but have concerns with pay-for performance. It takes money to implement, maintain, and document quality measures. They reason if payees give modest payments as incentives, they cannot recoup additional administrative costs and provide quality care simultaneously. Others fear the implementation of health information technology for data collection and reporting will close the doors of their practices. The American Medical Association (AMA) believes providers should have the choice to volunteer in incentive programs, review, comment, and appeal performance data, and receive payment for participating (Health Policy Brief, 2012). Another issue health care providers have with this cost containment model lies on the premise that hospitals that care for patients from low-income backgrounds bear the burden of lower improvement scores compared to hospitals that care for patients from mid-level to high-level incomes. Lower improvement scores result from low-income patients’ lack of transportation, language barriers, and childcare among other barriers to access health care services. Limited access to care halts the prevention and treatment of chronic illnesses and increases readmission rates of patients to hospitals. As a result, hospitals incur penalties. Health care providers concerned with the impact these arrangements have on patients, oppose these programs because they think patient care will weaken at the expense of cost containment. Physicians have the power to control their pay by hand-picking the best patients to maintain or increase their performance measures. By selecting healthier patients, physicians widen the gap for racial and ethnic disparities in health care delivery. A study by Jha and colleagues of costs and quality in US hospitals found a group that consistently performed worse on both quality and cost metrics and that cares for proportionally greater numbers of elderly black and Medicaid patients than other institutions. (Health Policy Brief, 2012, para. 42) In comparison, a Yale study showed safety-net hospitals outperformed hospitals that treated less proportionate numbers of low-income patients. Effects on the Future of Health Care The implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) will increase the need for pay-for-performance programs and incentives. The Affordable Care Act promises to increase the enrollment of Medicaid and Medicare patients. Health care workers will find challenges with a large generation of Baby Boomers who will need long-term care. Under the ACA health care providers’ scores will include indicators, which measure patient-centered care, family engagement, and the ability to address disparities in health care delivery. As well, under the ‘Value-Based Purchasing Incentive’ mandates of the ACA, the Centers for Medicare [and] Medicaid Services have not only proposed additional process-of-care quality and mortality outcome measures on which to base future payments but also an integration of patient experience scores, representing up to 30% of hospital incentive payments, financially penalizing those with low scores. (Liang & Mackey, 2011, p. 1427) Not only that but also hospitals will have to report efficiency measures to include Medicare spending per beneficiary. Mandates will not only require quality but also focus on reducing costs. New programs will measure the reduction of costly hospital readmissions, restrict Medicaid payments for hospital-acquired conditions, and reduce Medicare payments to hospitals with the highest rates of medical harm. Conclusion Reports and studies support evidence, which shows pay-for-performance does not improve the quality of care nor reduce the costs of health care. Researchers must find ways to improve quality of care over a substantial period, close racial and economic disparity gaps, and increase health care worker acceptance of pay-for-performance programs, and incentives, which motivate providers to produce more positive health outcomes. Developers of program incentives should use tools, which help monitor and evaluate health care outcomes aside from other factors with variations in health care markets. By collecting data, researchers can design programs that improve quality of care and reduce costs. References Health Policy Brief: Pay-for-Performance. (2012, October 11). Health Affairs. Retrieved from http://www.healthaffairs.org/healthpolicybriefs/brief.php?brief_id=78 Liang, B. A., & Mackey, T. (2011). Quality and Safety in Medical Care: What Does the Future Hold?. Archives Of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 135(11), 1425-1431. doi:10.5858/arpa.2011-0154-OA Meredith, B. R., PhD, Richard, G. F., PhD, Zhonghe, L., MA, & Arnold, M. E., MD, MA. (2005). Early experience with pay-for-performance: From concept to practice. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 294(14), 1788–1793. Retrieved from http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=201673 Shaman, H. (2008). What you need to know about pay for performance. Hfm (Healthcare Financial Management), 62(10), 92-96.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Analysis of semco and pixar animated studio as an example of innovative organizations

Companies like Semco, Gore and Associate, 3M and Pixar have made a reputation for themselves due to their emphasis on creativity. Innovation is a product of collaborative learning, idea generation, sharing and idea realization practices of workers in an organization (Dovey, 2009, p.311). For innovation to occur an organisation must foster an environment and culture that give room for creativity which is what Semco and Pixar have achieved. To this end, this report will analyse Semco and Pixar as an exemplar of innovative companies and the relationship that exist between them using some key theories of innovation and the defining features and managerial actions that set them apart as innovative organisations. SEMCO Semco is a loose organisation that encourages innovation and self organisation leading to trust, collaboration and cooperation. Semco was a small family engineering company originally called Semler and Company established in 1952 in Sao Paulo, Brazil by Antonio Curt Semler and renamed Semco after Ricardo Semler, the 24 year old son of the owner resumed office as the new chief executive officer in 1984, firing more than half of the top managers on his first day of resuming office as chief executive officer and eliminated all secretarial positions (CNN, 2004). The company prior to Ricardo taking over was characterised with autocratic style of management with control and rules being the order of the day and operating at the edge of collapse. Ricardo Semler favours a participating style of management, profit sharing and free flow of information. The company product range includes dishwashers, pumps, mixers, cooling units for air condition, biscuits factories among others (Semler 1999, p. 1). It is one of the most innovative companies in the world and has become the subject of study for most business schools all around the world due to its peculiar management style. There is no organisation structure that feeds managers ego, subordinates choose their own bosses, employees set their salaries, production targets and achieve them at their own time, and are encouraged to participate, share ideas and also share in the profit (Semler 1999, pp.1-7, 130 131). PIXAR Pixar animated studio was established in 1986 after Steve Jobs purchased the computer graphics division of Lucas films for $10 million with Ed Catmull being named co-founder and Chief technical officer, Smith as vice president alongside Steve Jobs (Price, 2008, p.74 85-197). In 2001, Ed Catmull was named Pixar’s president. The company originally manufactures and sell hardware and software that enable computer graphics to develop animations. In 1987, the company began the making of short films with its first computer generated movie, Toy Story being released in 1995. The company which is a wholly owned subsidiary of Walt Disney acquired 2006 at $7.4 billion and located in Emeryville, California (Paik, 2007). The acquisition will help Pixar gain economies of scale and access to new technologies. Pixar has a range of films under its belt that has surpassed box office expectations from Rango, Hop, Toy Story 3, finding Nemo, the incredible and many others (Emerald Group Review, 2 011). Its target audience cuts across all ages and nationalities and include families and children and its product range include short films in DVDs, soundtrack CDs, animated films among others (Price, 2008, pp.3-7). It fosters an environment that gives room for mistakes and encourages collaborations among teams and departments and devoid of micro management by executives to ensure creativity and innovation (YouTube-imperial college, 2009). THEORIES OF INNOVATION USING EVIDENCE FROM SEMCO AND PIXAR What makes Ricardo Semler and Ed Catmull exceptional in the way they run their companiesCould it be that they were born to innovation, an act of God, divine intervention, grace, or years of experience and acquisition of knowledge and educationAnalysts and business tycoons have called these men genius. Some critics of Semler and Pixar would have called the transformation at these companies as a gift from the gods. However, it is worthy of note that Semco was a company already in operation prior to Ricardo taking over and Pixar had several failed attempts before its major breakthrough in 1995 with Toy Story. Emerald group, 2011 quoted Ed Catmull in Harvard Business Review ‘I don’t think our success is largely luck. Rather, I believe our adherence to a set of principles and practices for managing creative talent and risk is responsible.’ Was grace far from the transformation in these companiesRicardo was one of the youngest graduates at Harvard Business School who wo uld have learnt some of the traditional management theories in school but choose to manage in a uniquely different way that suite his life and believes suite those of his employees. Moreover, having had an encounter with a doctor who told him to change his work style, he decided to change his way of management, a factor that has led to the key changes at Semco today. Thus innovation at Semco may be a combination of association having graduated from Harvard, accident-a chance meeting with the doctor, personality-considering that while at high school he raised some money for the school vacation program which he reinvested to yield a return before the vacation, feature of life and a bit of cognitive considering the fact that innovation at Semco had evolved over time. It is far from being grace or act of gods. Several forms of innovation can be said to have taken placed at these organisations. They are: Organisational innovation: An organisational innovation is one that entails the implementation of a new organisational method in the firm’s business practices, workplace or external relations (Stoneman, 2010, p.17; OECD, 2006). It is often intended to increase a company’s performance through improvement in workplace satisfaction and labour productivity and access to knowledge. It entails an adoption of an organisational method such as flatter organisation structures, employees’ participation among others that have not being used before in an organisation and often results from strategic decisions taken by management (Stoneman, 2010, p.18). Semco and Pixar posses a great deal of organisational innovation. Semco had implemented theories that have never being tried before such as the satellites programs that allow ex-employees to open their own companies with financial help and resources and become partners with Semco and employees cutting their wages by 30% to Semc o at difficult times to get a higher returns when trading conditions get better. What drive such innovation are the organisational culture, structure and learning. Social innovation: This is the innovation that supports and it is beneficial to the society. Pixar is an example of such innovation whose films though animated have a lot of influence on the society both young and small. Its latest film, hop for instance gives social lessons about the role of adult and children in society. Semco has also contributed to the Brazilian society through employment and a reduction in job cuts. Traditional innovation: This is technological innovation and is measured in different ways such as through patents, expenditure and development among others. Semco and Pixar have shown a lot of innovation and creativity in technology with Pixar having a lot of patents. All these types of innovation create social capital which will be discussed later in this report. FEATURES OF INNOVATIVE ORGANISATIONS OR MANAGEMENT ACTIONS SEMCO and Pixar’s success is built on a lattice or flatter organisational structure devoid of control culture that has gone through series of transformation through the years which has enhanced their innovative ability. An organisational culture devoid of control fosters innovation as individuals are giving the freedom to self organise and make their own decisions just like Semco where employees set their salaries and take decisions on production targets and the time they meet such targets (Semler, 1999, p.1). These companies have been able to manage innovation in the following ways: Structure and culture: Organisational design is crucial to the continuous innovation of an enterprise. As the business environment becomes complex and uncertain, so is the organisational design changing to meet up with customers’ demands for value maximising products. Traditional management scientists like Max Weber emphasised formal structure which is a top-down approach characterised with command, control, rules, position power and neglect social and psychological influences on behaviours of employees and teams (Burnes 2000, p.45). Employees are likely to respond to a good leader who they trust and respect than being managed in a bureaucratic way as argued by Adair 1986:54. Semco operates a lattice structure and considers all workers as equal and has reduced bureaucracy from twelve layers of management to three (Semler 1999, p.7). Reduced hierarchies and high involvement will lead to faster decision making and idea generation and information sharing, leading to innovation. F ormal organisational structure stifles individual creativity. In the words of Semler, authoritarianism diminishes productivity and as such no privileges or rules that discourages flexibility (Semler, 1999, p. 4). At Semco, People are made to enjoy their job and feel good about themselves, not just to survive. Business strategy in the company is determined without interference from the top. Similarly, Pixar is free from the thick layers of formal management and executives are not involved in the day to day running of the organisation. All employees are equally important and all work together for the success of a story. Both companies are devoid of micro-management which ensures creativity and innovation. To have these kind of organisations require a conducive organisational culture that is devoid of control. In the words of Ed Catmull, ‘Management really doesn’t tell people what to do.’ Thus both companies give employees freedom to take risk and there is reflecti on, learning and feedback. However , not everyone can work in an environment with such a structure as some people like being told what to do, also, people wants to know what their responsibilities are and who they are report to while others do not like responsibility. It means that such environment will attract liked minded individuals. Trust and Freedom: Due to the flexible organisational structure and lack of formal reporting structures, employees can be trusted to carry out their roles. However, there is a tendency for employees to abuse the system giving the few reporting structures. Semco has absolute trust in her employees and encourages them to be self managing and governing and have made partners with them. There is so much trust that Semco made entrepreneurs out of its workers through assistance with setting up their own company through its satellite programs, buy from them and encourage them to sell to its competitors. One will assume trust will not be a possibility giving the large number of employees of over 3000. Semco has defiled business school expectations and has gone as far as allowing workers to participate in managerial decision making from deciding how much they get paid, to unlimited access to financial information and freedom to work whenever and wherever they choose and meet targets at their own set time and set their salaries which has resulted in impressive growth, long term loyalty and increase and better productivity. To Semler, his interest is in the final result not where, how and hours worked (Easen, 2004). Freedom drives performance and encourages innovation. Staff can work better if given more independence (Handy, 2004). Semco adopts a participating or democratic management style that create an atmosphere where both bosses and subordinates ( partners and associate) interact regardless of jobs and position and all are involved in decision making (Semler, 1999.pp.6 81). In the words of Semler (1999, p. 6), ‘We don’t have as many bosses as we used to. As workers began to exercise more control over their jobs and assume more voices in our policies, the need for supervisors diminished.’ Having trust in individual will give them a sense of belonging and being wanted and encourage new ideas and sharing of ideas among one another. Semco and Pixar re alised that the most powerful resources at their disposal are the people who make things happen in their organisations and have learnt to trust, believe in them and give them the freedom to express their innovative capabilities and drive production forward. Trust is seen as an outcome of social capital and shared values (Cote and Healy, 2001). However, the problem with freedom is that not everyone like being free. Some people want to be controlled and directed to get their job done. Some see control as a motivator. Moreover, some top managers may resist the need for reduced hierarchies for fear of losing control and power. Social capital and Collaboration: At Semco and Pixar, there is collaboration and teamwork as people work together for common and shared values and not get in each others’ way but are committed to the achievement of the common goal of the company. At Semco, employees participate in managerial decision not just relating to their jobs but the business as a whole. They are included in decisions that pertain to choosing who their boss becomes (Easen, 2004). Before people are hired or promoted to leadership positions, they are interviewed and approved by all who will be working for them, and every six months managers are evaluated by their subordinates. Semco has autonomous business units established by ex- employees who open their own business with help from Semco and have become partners, associate and collaborators and has made Semco a leaner and agile organisation (Semler, 1999 P.7). Also different departments and business units and teams work collectively to drive innovation f orward at Semco and Pixar. Easen, 2004 reported Semler as saying that ‘Growth and profit are a product of how people work together.’ There is a balanced collaboration at Pixar as artist and technologists are paired together. Every offer or idea is accepted and then people get the chance to plus it (Nelsen, 2008). A term Nelsen called ‘plussing’- taking an idea or a piece of work and find a way to add or improve upon it without judging it. At Pixar, collaboration means amplification whereby employees who are listening and interested in each other are joined together to work and bring separate depth to the problems and breadth that gives them interest in the solution as well as allow teams to communicate at different levels. The brain trust at Pixar is a framework or forum that gives an opportunity for some of the best brains to use their expertise and experience to share their understanding and knowledge with others and to get feedback. The Organisation for Economic Development and Cooperation, OECD defines social capital as ‘networks together with shared norms, values and understandings that facilitate cooperation within or among groups’ (ONS, 2001; Cote and Healy, 2001:41). It is the glue that holds organisations together and enables employees to join forces more effectively and pursue shared objectives. In a culture of continual change and uncertainty, sustainable communities are those who are collaborative and always growing with and towards each other in the formation, sharing and adaptation to new knowledge (Smith and Paquette, 2010). Some of the outcomes of social capital are social relations, trust, collaboration, mutually enforceable agreement, general reciprocity and innovation (ONS, 2001). In Semco there is mutually enforceable agreement resulting from profit sharing. In the past, Pixar had used stock to motivate employees and encourage them to stay. Also, the need to produce quality output at Pixar could be a form of mutually enforceable agreement (Price 2008, p. 114). Pay recognition: Motivation such as adequate pay, interpersonal relations and work and group dynamics are some factors that increase productivity and workers satisfaction (Mullins, 2007, p.53). Employees will be committed to work if they are being paid fairly and feel that their contribution is appreciated in the organisation. Semco’s employees set their salaries and share in the profits. As Semler (1999, P. 4) says, ‘Profit-sharing is democratic. We negotiate with our workers over the basic percentage to be distributed- about a quarter of our corporate profit.’ This has worked so well at Semco as there is very low labour turnover and when the need arises, those laid off are assisted to form their own company. Reward systems and benefits retain people and lead to workers’ satisfaction, commitment and loyalty (Chiu et al, 2002). There were times when workers salary proposal were rejected in instances of over- statement. Contrary to this is the argument that financial rewards are not enough to motivate people and that group pressure has more influence on employees than financial rewards (Mullins, 2007, p.301). In addition, people also have intrinsic motivation derives from within the individual which propels them towards the need for self actualisation and fulfilment. Learning and feedback/ Gives room for mistakes/Risk taking: Learning within projects teams depends heavily on the inflow and transfer of knowledgeable among them. Semco and Pixar are learning organisations. Such organisations give room for failure and learning from mistakes and encourage risk taking and have a wide tolerance for new ideas and do not punish mistakes. A learning organisation was defined by Johnson et al (2008) as, ‘One capable of continual regeneration from the variety of knowledge, experience and skills of individuals that encourage mutual questioning and challenge around a shared purpose or vision.’ Semler pointed out that mistake is welcome and a sign that the employee is taking enough risk. Without mistakes, there will not be learning and consequently, innovation will be stifled. Likewise at Pixar, continuous innovation requires that executives resist the natural tendencies to minimise risks and accept uncertainty to ensure originality and ability to r ecover from failures resulting from taking risks. It encourages creativity by allowing people to experiment with new ideas and mistakes genuinely made are treated as part of the learning process Emerald Group review, 2011). Mistake are not punished at Pixar but seen as building block for new ideas and innovation just like 3M. Pixar endorses and encourages a creative by rejecting hierarchical and controlled system, instead the taking of risks and recognizes the importance of serendipity in the creative process (Smith and Paquette, 2010) It has been argued that employees’ collective knowledge exceeds those of the organisation and its capabilities and managers should aim at encouraging processes that unlock employees’ knowledge and encourage information, knowledge and idea sharing which is the sort of environment both companies have created for their employees. As a narrator said, each movies produced by Pixar contains a combination of tens of thousands of ideas arising from risk taking, failure and learning. Ed Catmull said that ‘Innovative people are failure recovered not failure avoider.’ Both companies give room for reflection, learning and feedback. The benefits of learning cannot be over emphasis. Learning increases employees’ commitment, improve quality as mistakes are identified. Senge 1999 reiterated that organisational learning leads to organisational performance. Commitment: At Semco, everyone is committed to the achievement of the organisation’s objectives as they all feel a sense of belonging and part ownership of the company arising partly from the profit sharing. Employees are seen as being importance and valued. A worker in an interview said if an employee is idle, another worker will often ask why he or she is not working, reminding him or her that failure to work will reduce their profits and subsequently reduction in money for their pockets. So there is peer pressure. If employees feel that they are being trusted to take decision on their own and self manage, they will be committed. Semco operates an egalitarian company where there is no preferential treatment. Parking lots are for first come basis and all employees eat on the same canteen. Meetings are held based on the first two employees to be present. This makes employees feel as being a part of the team and big family and give them a sense of being wanted by the company. B y removing privileges of ranks, employees will see themselves as a wider community, thus feel comfortable voicing their opinion, leading to generation of new ideas. Dynamism: Semco is a highly flexible company with no boundaries to the type of business and products, making it difficult to say exactly what kind of business the company is in. There is no fixed business and it is open to any form of business that comes their way. It is also characterised with the absence of business plans and company strategy. In the words of Semler (2003, p.4), ‘ Once you say what business you are in, you create boundaries for you employees, you restrict their thinking and give them a reason to ignore new opportunities as they will say we are not in that business.’ Semco is so dynamic in its operations and processes that employees must not use one desk two days in a row. This is to make them difficult to track and are free to move and work anywhere that appeals to them be it home office. There is time flexibility as they are not concerned about when the employees arrive at work. However, contracts are negotiated on the basis of what to be achieved at a set period and what it stands to gain for paid value and what the employees get in return. It is a mutually enforceable agreement as both parties- employees and Semco benefit. Pixar, though in a core line of business of animated films, it is not to say it is not a dynamic company as different forms of films that benefits both adult and children have being produced over the years. There is effective communication at both companies due to the organisational culture and flatter structure devoid of control. There is information, idea and knowledge sharing. At Pixar, technologists communicate with the artists. SUMARY AND CONCLUSION Semco and Pixar are said to be innovative even though the companies are different in what they do and how they approach innovation. Nevertheless, some common factors in both companies is the delegation of a large amount of control to their employees and absolute freedom to take risk and give room for mistakes and failure, giving them freedom to generate new ideas and thus take a more active role and commitment. Both companies have decentralised the management structures to get employees more involved in decision making and give them a sense of belonging. They have created a culture that gives room for mistakes, failures, sharing of information, and ideas. There is also collaboration between employees, teams, departments, business units and partners, trust, social capital, communication, lack of micro-management and similar organisational culture and structure which encourages innovation. However, both companies differ in a number of ways such as absence of profit sharing at Pixar, la nguages, products, country of location and time scales. Having carried out a detailed analysis of Semco and Pixar, it is possible that what works at these companies can be applicable to other companies. However, some disadvantages will be accrued if these features are applied in another company characterised with hierarchical control culture and structure such as resistance from top management who are control freaks and unwilling to relinquish power. Moreover, not everyone will be able to self manage as some people like being controlled and told what to do. In addition, that trust and freedom work well in these organisations does not mean it can be implemented in other organisations as differences in culture and environment will play a role in determining its effectiveness in another company with different organisational culture and business environment. Having said this, nothing is worth not trying, so these managerial actions that have worked so well in these organisations can be applied to other organisations. The reward may not be see n immediately, but in the long run, it will pay off. REFERENCE ADAIR, J. 1986. Effective Team Building: How to make a Winning Team. London: Gower Publishing Co Ltd.BURNES, B. 2000. Managing Change: A Strategic Approach to Organisational Dynamics. 3rd edn. England: Pearson Education Ltd. CHIU, R. K, LUK, W.V AND TANG, T.L (2002) Retaining and motivating employees: Compensation preferences in Hong Kong and China. Personnel Review [Online journal], 31 (4), pp.402-431. Available from Emerald at http://www.emeraldinsight.com/search.htm?st1=Retaining+and+motivating+employees%3A+Compensation+preferences+in+Hong+Kong+and+Chinact=allec=1bf=1 . (April 19 2011). COTE, S AND HEALY, T. (2001) The Well-being of Nations. The role of human and social capital. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris. CNN. 2004. Ricardo Semler, Semco SA. [WWW] http://edition.cnn.com/2004/BUSINESS/06/29/semler.profile/index.html?iref=allsearch(27 April 2011). DOVEY, K. 2009. The role of trust in innovation. The Learning Organization [online journal] 16(4). Pp.311-325. Available from Emerald at http://www.emeraldinsight.com/search.htm?st1=role+of+trust+in+innovationct=allec=1bf=1 . (March23/3/2011). EASEN, N. 2004. Interview with Ricardo Semler. [WWW] http://edition.cnn.com/2004/BUSINESS/05/19/go.semlar.transcript/index.html (15 April 2011). EASEN, N. 2004. Democracy in the Workplace. [WWW] http://edition.cnn.com/2004/BUSINESS/05/19/go.democratic.workplace/index.html?iref=allsearch (15 April 2011). EMERALD GROUP, 2011. How Pixar animates its talent team: not knowing the answers can be the way ahead. Development and Learning in Organizations [Online journal], 25 (1), pp. 30-32. Available from Emerald at http://www.emeraldinsight.com/search.htm?st1=pixarct=allec=1bf=1. (April 8 2011). HANDY C, 2004. Giving your Staff More Freedom. [WWW] http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/ hi/ business /4058519.stm (1 April 2011). JOHNSON, G, SCHOLES, K AND WHITTINGTON, R. 2008. Exploring Corporate Strategy: Text and Cases. 8th edn. England: Pearson Education Limited. MULLINS, L. J, 2007. Management and Organisational Behaviour. 8th edn. Essex: Pearson Education Limited. NELSEN, R. 2008. Pixar’s Randy Nelsen on the Collaborative Age. [WWW] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QhXJe8ANws8 (1 April 2011). OFFICE OF NATIONAL STATISTICS. 2001. Social Capital: A review of the literature. [WWW] http://www.statistics.gov.uk/socialcapital/downloads/soccaplitreview.pdf (26 April 2011). PAIK, K. 2007. To Infinity and Beyond: The story of Pixar Animation Studio. London: Virgin Books Ltd. PIXAR GROUP 24. 2009. Innovation Management: Imperial College. [WWW] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dTB5S2mc3wA (20 March 2011). PRICE, D. A.2008. The Pixar Touch: The Making of a Company. USA: Alfred A. Knopf. SEMLER, R. 2003. The Seven-Day Weekend. London: Century. SEMLER, R. Semco – Ricardo Semler – MIT SF 11 – Leading organizations. [WWW] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k1qJ2W9cVDM (14 April 2011). SEMLER, R. (1999) Maverick! The Success Story Behind the World’s most Unusual Workplace. London: Random House Business Books. SEMLER, R. 2007. Interview with Ricardo Semler. [WWW] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gJkOPxJCN1wfeature=related (13 March 2011). SENGE, P.M. (1999). It’s the learning: the real lesson of quality movement. The Journal for Quality and Participation, 22 (6)Pp.34-40. STONEMAN, P. 2010. Soft Innovation: Economics, Product Aesthetics and Creative Industries. New York: Oxford University Press.SMITH, S. AND PAQUETTE, S. (2010). Creativity, chaos and knowledge management. Business Information Review, 27 (2), pp. 118-23. BIBLIOGRAPHY BESSANT, J. 2003. High Involvement innovation: Building and Sustaining Competitive Advantage Through Continuous Change. England: John Wiley Sons. CHRISTENSEN, C.M, AND ERIK, A.R. 2004. Seeing What is Next: Using the Theories of Innovation to Predict Industry Change. USA: Harvard Business school Press. BURDETH, O.J. 1994. The Magic of Alignment. Management Decision [online journal], 32 (2), pp. 59-63. Available from Emerald at http://www.emeraldinsight.com/search.htm?st1=alignmentct=allec=1bf=1go=Go. (March 3 2011). Analysis of semco and pixar animated studio as an example of innovative organizations Companies like Semco, Gore and Associate, 3M and Pixar have made a reputation for themselves due to their emphasis on creativity. Innovation is a product of collaborative learning, idea generation, sharing and idea realization practices of workers in an organization (Dovey, 2009, p.311). For innovation to occur an organisation must foster an environment and culture that give room for creativity which is what Semco and Pixar have achieved. To this end, this report will analyse Semco and Pixar as an exemplar of innovative companies and the relationship that exist between them using some key theories of innovation and the defining features and managerial actions that set them apart as innovative organisations. SEMCO Semco is a loose organisation that encourages innovation and self organisation leading to trust, collaboration and cooperation. Semco was a small family engineering company originally called Semler and Company established in 1952 in Sao Paulo, Brazil by Antonio Curt Semler and renamed Semco after Ricardo Semler, the 24 year old son of the owner resumed office as the new chief executive officer in 1984, firing more than half of the top managers on his first day of resuming office as chief executive officer and eliminated all secretarial positions (CNN, 2004). The company prior to Ricardo taking over was characterised with autocratic style of management with control and rules being the order of the day and operating at the edge of collapse. Ricardo Semler favours a participating style of management, profit sharing and free flow of information. The company product range includes dishwashers, pumps, mixers, cooling units for air condition, biscuits factories among others (Semler 1999, p. 1). It is one of the most innovative companies in the world and has become the subject of study for most business schools all around the world due to its peculiar management style. There is no organisation structure that feeds managers ego, subordinates choose their own bosses, employees set their salaries, production targets and achieve them at their own time, and are encouraged to participate, share ideas and also share in the profit (Semler 1999, pp.1-7, 130 131). PIXAR Pixar animated studio was established in 1986 after Steve Jobs purchased the computer graphics division of Lucas films for $10 million with Ed Catmull being named co-founder and Chief technical officer, Smith as vice president alongside Steve Jobs (Price, 2008, p.74 85-197). In 2001, Ed Catmull was named Pixar’s president. The company originally manufactures and sell hardware and software that enable computer graphics to develop animations. In 1987, the company began the making of short films with its first computer generated movie, Toy Story being released in 1995. The company which is a wholly owned subsidiary of Walt Disney acquired 2006 at $7.4 billion and located in Emeryville, California (Paik, 2007). The acquisition will help Pixar gain economies of scale and access to new technologies. Pixar has a range of films under its belt that has surpassed box office expectations from Rango, Hop, Toy Story 3, finding Nemo, the incredible and many others (Emerald Group Review, 2 011). Its target audience cuts across all ages and nationalities and include families and children and its product range include short films in DVDs, soundtrack CDs, animated films among others (Price, 2008, pp.3-7). It fosters an environment that gives room for mistakes and encourages collaborations among teams and departments and devoid of micro management by executives to ensure creativity and innovation (YouTube-imperial college, 2009). THEORIES OF INNOVATION USING EVIDENCE FROM SEMCO AND PIXAR What makes Ricardo Semler and Ed Catmull exceptional in the way they run their companiesCould it be that they were born to innovation, an act of God, divine intervention, grace, or years of experience and acquisition of knowledge and educationAnalysts and business tycoons have called these men genius. Some critics of Semler and Pixar would have called the transformation at these companies as a gift from the gods. However, it is worthy of note that Semco was a company already in operation prior to Ricardo taking over and Pixar had several failed attempts before its major breakthrough in 1995 with Toy Story. Emerald group, 2011 quoted Ed Catmull in Harvard Business Review ‘I don’t think our success is largely luck. Rather, I believe our adherence to a set of principles and practices for managing creative talent and risk is responsible.’ Was grace far from the transformation in these companiesRicardo was one of the youngest graduates at Harvard Business School who wo uld have learnt some of the traditional management theories in school but choose to manage in a uniquely different way that suite his life and believes suite those of his employees. Moreover, having had an encounter with a doctor who told him to change his work style, he decided to change his way of management, a factor that has led to the key changes at Semco today. Thus innovation at Semco may be a combination of association having graduated from Harvard, accident-a chance meeting with the doctor, personality-considering that while at high school he raised some money for the school vacation program which he reinvested to yield a return before the vacation, feature of life and a bit of cognitive considering the fact that innovation at Semco had evolved over time. It is far from being grace or act of gods. Several forms of innovation can be said to have taken placed at these organisations. They are: Organisational innovation: An organisational innovation is one that entails the implementation of a new organisational method in the firm’s business practices, workplace or external relations (Stoneman, 2010, p.17; OECD, 2006). It is often intended to increase a company’s performance through improvement in workplace satisfaction and labour productivity and access to knowledge. It entails an adoption of an organisational method such as flatter organisation structures, employees’ participation among others that have not being used before in an organisation and often results from strategic decisions taken by management (Stoneman, 2010, p.18). Semco and Pixar posses a great deal of organisational innovation. Semco had implemented theories that have never being tried before such as the satellites programs that allow ex-employees to open their own companies with financial help and resources and become partners with Semco and employees cutting their wages by 30% to Semc o at difficult times to get a higher returns when trading conditions get better. What drive such innovation are the organisational culture, structure and learning. Social innovation: This is the innovation that supports and it is beneficial to the society. Pixar is an example of such innovation whose films though animated have a lot of influence on the society both young and small. Its latest film, hop for instance gives social lessons about the role of adult and children in society. Semco has also contributed to the Brazilian society through employment and a reduction in job cuts. Traditional innovation: This is technological innovation and is measured in different ways such as through patents, expenditure and development among others. Semco and Pixar have shown a lot of innovation and creativity in technology with Pixar having a lot of patents. All these types of innovation create social capital which will be discussed later in this report. FEATURES OF INNOVATIVE ORGANISATIONS OR MANAGEMENT ACTIONS SEMCO and Pixar’s success is built on a lattice or flatter organisational structure devoid of control culture that has gone through series of transformation through the years which has enhanced their innovative ability. An organisational culture devoid of control fosters innovation as individuals are giving the freedom to self organise and make their own decisions just like Semco where employees set their salaries and take decisions on production targets and the time they meet such targets (Semler, 1999, p.1). These companies have been able to manage innovation in the following ways: Structure and culture: Organisational design is crucial to the continuous innovation of an enterprise. As the business environment becomes complex and uncertain, so is the organisational design changing to meet up with customers’ demands for value maximising products. Traditional management scientists like Max Weber emphasised formal structure which is a top-down approach characterised with command, control, rules, position power and neglect social and psychological influences on behaviours of employees and teams (Burnes 2000, p.45). Employees are likely to respond to a good leader who they trust and respect than being managed in a bureaucratic way as argued by Adair 1986:54. Semco operates a lattice structure and considers all workers as equal and has reduced bureaucracy from twelve layers of management to three (Semler 1999, p.7). Reduced hierarchies and high involvement will lead to faster decision making and idea generation and information sharing, leading to innovation. F ormal organisational structure stifles individual creativity. In the words of Semler, authoritarianism diminishes productivity and as such no privileges or rules that discourages flexibility (Semler, 1999, p. 4). At Semco, People are made to enjoy their job and feel good about themselves, not just to survive. Business strategy in the company is determined without interference from the top. Similarly, Pixar is free from the thick layers of formal management and executives are not involved in the day to day running of the organisation. All employees are equally important and all work together for the success of a story. Both companies are devoid of micro-management which ensures creativity and innovation. To have these kind of organisations require a conducive organisational culture that is devoid of control. In the words of Ed Catmull, ‘Management really doesn’t tell people what to do.’ Thus both companies give employees freedom to take risk and there is reflecti on, learning and feedback. However , not everyone can work in an environment with such a structure as some people like being told what to do, also, people wants to know what their responsibilities are and who they are report to while others do not like responsibility. It means that such environment will attract liked minded individuals. Trust and Freedom: Due to the flexible organisational structure and lack of formal reporting structures, employees can be trusted to carry out their roles. However, there is a tendency for employees to abuse the system giving the few reporting structures. Semco has absolute trust in her employees and encourages them to be self managing and governing and have made partners with them. There is so much trust that Semco made entrepreneurs out of its workers through assistance with setting up their own company through its satellite programs, buy from them and encourage them to sell to its competitors. One will assume trust will not be a possibility giving the large number of employees of over 3000. Semco has defiled business school expectations and has gone as far as allowing workers to participate in managerial decision making from deciding how much they get paid, to unlimited access to financial information and freedom to work whenever and wherever they choose and meet targets at their own set time and set their salaries which has resulted in impressive growth, long term loyalty and increase and better productivity. To Semler, his interest is in the final result not where, how and hours worked (Easen, 2004). Freedom drives performance and encourages innovation. Staff can work better if given more independence (Handy, 2004). Semco adopts a participating or democratic management style that create an atmosphere where both bosses and subordinates ( partners and associate) interact regardless of jobs and position and all are involved in decision making (Semler, 1999.pp.6 81). In the words of Semler (1999, p. 6), ‘We don’t have as many bosses as we used to. As workers began to exercise more control over their jobs and assume more voices in our policies, the need for supervisors diminished.’ Having trust in individual will give them a sense of belonging and being wanted and encourage new ideas and sharing of ideas among one another. Semco and Pixar re alised that the most powerful resources at their disposal are the people who make things happen in their organisations and have learnt to trust, believe in them and give them the freedom to express their innovative capabilities and drive production forward. Trust is seen as an outcome of social capital and shared values (Cote and Healy, 2001). However, the problem with freedom is that not everyone like being free. Some people want to be controlled and directed to get their job done. Some see control as a motivator. Moreover, some top managers may resist the need for reduced hierarchies for fear of losing control and power. Social capital and Collaboration: At Semco and Pixar, there is collaboration and teamwork as people work together for common and shared values and not get in each others’ way but are committed to the achievement of the common goal of the company. At Semco, employees participate in managerial decision not just relating to their jobs but the business as a whole. They are included in decisions that pertain to choosing who their boss becomes (Easen, 2004). Before people are hired or promoted to leadership positions, they are interviewed and approved by all who will be working for them, and every six months managers are evaluated by their subordinates. Semco has autonomous business units established by ex- employees who open their own business with help from Semco and have become partners, associate and collaborators and has made Semco a leaner and agile organisation (Semler, 1999 P.7). Also different departments and business units and teams work collectively to drive innovation f orward at Semco and Pixar. Easen, 2004 reported Semler as saying that ‘Growth and profit are a product of how people work together.’ There is a balanced collaboration at Pixar as artist and technologists are paired together. Every offer or idea is accepted and then people get the chance to plus it (Nelsen, 2008). A term Nelsen called ‘plussing’- taking an idea or a piece of work and find a way to add or improve upon it without judging it. At Pixar, collaboration means amplification whereby employees who are listening and interested in each other are joined together to work and bring separate depth to the problems and breadth that gives them interest in the solution as well as allow teams to communicate at different levels. The brain trust at Pixar is a framework or forum that gives an opportunity for some of the best brains to use their expertise and experience to share their understanding and knowledge with others and to get feedback. The Organisation for Economic Development and Cooperation, OECD defines social capital as ‘networks together with shared norms, values and understandings that facilitate cooperation within or among groups’ (ONS, 2001; Cote and Healy, 2001:41). It is the glue that holds organisations together and enables employees to join forces more effectively and pursue shared objectives. In a culture of continual change and uncertainty, sustainable communities are those who are collaborative and always growing with and towards each other in the formation, sharing and adaptation to new knowledge (Smith and Paquette, 2010). Some of the outcomes of social capital are social relations, trust, collaboration, mutually enforceable agreement, general reciprocity and innovation (ONS, 2001). In Semco there is mutually enforceable agreement resulting from profit sharing. In the past, Pixar had used stock to motivate employees and encourage them to stay. Also, the need to produce quality output at Pixar could be a form of mutually enforceable agreement (Price 2008, p. 114). Pay recognition: Motivation such as adequate pay, interpersonal relations and work and group dynamics are some factors that increase productivity and workers satisfaction (Mullins, 2007, p.53). Employees will be committed to work if they are being paid fairly and feel that their contribution is appreciated in the organisation. Semco’s employees set their salaries and share in the profits. As Semler (1999, P. 4) says, ‘Profit-sharing is democratic. We negotiate with our workers over the basic percentage to be distributed- about a quarter of our corporate profit.’ This has worked so well at Semco as there is very low labour turnover and when the need arises, those laid off are assisted to form their own company. Reward systems and benefits retain people and lead to workers’ satisfaction, commitment and loyalty (Chiu et al, 2002). There were times when workers salary proposal were rejected in instances of over- statement. Contrary to this is the argument that financial rewards are not enough to motivate people and that group pressure has more influence on employees than financial rewards (Mullins, 2007, p.301). In addition, people also have intrinsic motivation derives from within the individual which propels them towards the need for self actualisation and fulfilment. Learning and feedback/ Gives room for mistakes/Risk taking: Learning within projects teams depends heavily on the inflow and transfer of knowledgeable among them. Semco and Pixar are learning organisations. Such organisations give room for failure and learning from mistakes and encourage risk taking and have a wide tolerance for new ideas and do not punish mistakes. A learning organisation was defined by Johnson et al (2008) as, ‘One capable of continual regeneration from the variety of knowledge, experience and skills of individuals that encourage mutual questioning and challenge around a shared purpose or vision.’ Semler pointed out that mistake is welcome and a sign that the employee is taking enough risk. Without mistakes, there will not be learning and consequently, innovation will be stifled. Likewise at Pixar, continuous innovation requires that executives resist the natural tendencies to minimise risks and accept uncertainty to ensure originality and ability to r ecover from failures resulting from taking risks. It encourages creativity by allowing people to experiment with new ideas and mistakes genuinely made are treated as part of the learning process Emerald Group review, 2011). Mistake are not punished at Pixar but seen as building block for new ideas and innovation just like 3M. Pixar endorses and encourages a creative by rejecting hierarchical and controlled system, instead the taking of risks and recognizes the importance of serendipity in the creative process (Smith and Paquette, 2010) It has been argued that employees’ collective knowledge exceeds those of the organisation and its capabilities and managers should aim at encouraging processes that unlock employees’ knowledge and encourage information, knowledge and idea sharing which is the sort of environment both companies have created for their employees. As a narrator said, each movies produced by Pixar contains a combination of tens of thousands of ideas arising from risk taking, failure and learning. Ed Catmull said that ‘Innovative people are failure recovered not failure avoider.’ Both companies give room for reflection, learning and feedback. The benefits of learning cannot be over emphasis. Learning increases employees’ commitment, improve quality as mistakes are identified. Senge 1999 reiterated that organisational learning leads to organisational performance. Commitment: At Semco, everyone is committed to the achievement of the organisation’s objectives as they all feel a sense of belonging and part ownership of the company arising partly from the profit sharing. Employees are seen as being importance and valued. A worker in an interview said if an employee is idle, another worker will often ask why he or she is not working, reminding him or her that failure to work will reduce their profits and subsequently reduction in money for their pockets. So there is peer pressure. If employees feel that they are being trusted to take decision on their own and self manage, they will be committed. Semco operates an egalitarian company where there is no preferential treatment. Parking lots are for first come basis and all employees eat on the same canteen. Meetings are held based on the first two employees to be present. This makes employees feel as being a part of the team and big family and give them a sense of being wanted by the company. B y removing privileges of ranks, employees will see themselves as a wider community, thus feel comfortable voicing their opinion, leading to generation of new ideas. Dynamism: Semco is a highly flexible company with no boundaries to the type of business and products, making it difficult to say exactly what kind of business the company is in. There is no fixed business and it is open to any form of business that comes their way. It is also characterised with the absence of business plans and company strategy. In the words of Semler (2003, p.4), ‘ Once you say what business you are in, you create boundaries for you employees, you restrict their thinking and give them a reason to ignore new opportunities as they will say we are not in that business.’ Semco is so dynamic in its operations and processes that employees must not use one desk two days in a row. This is to make them difficult to track and are free to move and work anywhere that appeals to them be it home office. There is time flexibility as they are not concerned about when the employees arrive at work. However, contracts are negotiated on the basis of what to be achieved at a set period and what it stands to gain for paid value and what the employees get in return. It is a mutually enforceable agreement as both parties- employees and Semco benefit. Pixar, though in a core line of business of animated films, it is not to say it is not a dynamic company as different forms of films that benefits both adult and children have being produced over the years. There is effective communication at both companies due to the organisational culture and flatter structure devoid of control. There is information, idea and knowledge sharing. At Pixar, technologists communicate with the artists. SUMARY AND CONCLUSION Semco and Pixar are said to be innovative even though the companies are different in what they do and how they approach innovation. Nevertheless, some common factors in both companies is the delegation of a large amount of control to their employees and absolute freedom to take risk and give room for mistakes and failure, giving them freedom to generate new ideas and thus take a more active role and commitment. Both companies have decentralised the management structures to get employees more involved in decision making and give them a sense of belonging. They have created a culture that gives room for mistakes, failures, sharing of information, and ideas. There is also collaboration between employees, teams, departments, business units and partners, trust, social capital, communication, lack of micro-management and similar organisational culture and structure which encourages innovation. However, both companies differ in a number of ways such as absence of profit sharing at Pixar, la nguages, products, country of location and time scales. Having carried out a detailed analysis of Semco and Pixar, it is possible that what works at these companies can be applicable to other companies. However, some disadvantages will be accrued if these features are applied in another company characterised with hierarchical control culture and structure such as resistance from top management who are control freaks and unwilling to relinquish power. Moreover, not everyone will be able to self manage as some people like being controlled and told what to do. In addition, that trust and freedom work well in these organisations does not mean it can be implemented in other organisations as differences in culture and environment will play a role in determining its effectiveness in another company with different organisational culture and business environment. Having said this, nothing is worth not trying, so these managerial actions that have worked so well in these organisations can be applied to other organisations. The reward may not be see n immediately, but in the long run, it will pay off. REFERENCE ADAIR, J. 1986. Effective Team Building: How to make a Winning Team. London: Gower Publishing Co Ltd.BURNES, B. 2000. Managing Change: A Strategic Approach to Organisational Dynamics. 3rd edn. England: Pearson Education Ltd. CHIU, R. K, LUK, W.V AND TANG, T.L (2002) Retaining and motivating employees: Compensation preferences in Hong Kong and China. Personnel Review [Online journal], 31 (4), pp.402-431. Available from Emerald at http://www.emeraldinsight.com/search.htm?st1=Retaining+and+motivating+employees%3A+Compensation+preferences+in+Hong+Kong+and+Chinact=allec=1bf=1 . (April 19 2011). COTE, S AND HEALY, T. (2001) The Well-being of Nations. The role of human and social capital. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris. CNN. 2004. Ricardo Semler, Semco SA. [WWW] http://edition.cnn.com/2004/BUSINESS/06/29/semler.profile/index.html?iref=allsearch(27 April 2011). DOVEY, K. 2009. The role of trust in innovation. The Learning Organization [online journal] 16(4). Pp.311-325. Available from Emerald at http://www.emeraldinsight.com/search.htm?st1=role+of+trust+in+innovationct=allec=1bf=1 . (March23/3/2011). EASEN, N. 2004. Interview with Ricardo Semler. [WWW] http://edition.cnn.com/2004/BUSINESS/05/19/go.semlar.transcript/index.html (15 April 2011). EASEN, N. 2004. Democracy in the Workplace. [WWW] http://edition.cnn.com/2004/BUSINESS/05/19/go.democratic.workplace/index.html?iref=allsearch (15 April 2011). EMERALD GROUP, 2011. How Pixar animates its talent team: not knowing the answers can be the way ahead. Development and Learning in Organizations [Online journal], 25 (1), pp. 30-32. Available from Emerald at http://www.emeraldinsight.com/search.htm?st1=pixarct=allec=1bf=1. (April 8 2011). HANDY C, 2004. Giving your Staff More Freedom. [WWW] http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/ hi/ business /4058519.stm (1 April 2011). JOHNSON, G, SCHOLES, K AND WHITTINGTON, R. 2008. Exploring Corporate Strategy: Text and Cases. 8th edn. England: Pearson Education Limited. MULLINS, L. J, 2007. Management and Organisational Behaviour. 8th edn. Essex: Pearson Education Limited. NELSEN, R. 2008. Pixar’s Randy Nelsen on the Collaborative Age. [WWW] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QhXJe8ANws8 (1 April 2011). OFFICE OF NATIONAL STATISTICS. 2001. Social Capital: A review of the literature. [WWW] http://www.statistics.gov.uk/socialcapital/downloads/soccaplitreview.pdf (26 April 2011). PAIK, K. 2007. To Infinity and Beyond: The story of Pixar Animation Studio. London: Virgin Books Ltd. PIXAR GROUP 24. 2009. Innovation Management: Imperial College. [WWW] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dTB5S2mc3wA (20 March 2011). PRICE, D. A.2008. The Pixar Touch: The Making of a Company. USA: Alfred A. Knopf. SEMLER, R. 2003. The Seven-Day Weekend. London: Century. SEMLER, R. Semco – Ricardo Semler – MIT SF 11 – Leading organizations. [WWW] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k1qJ2W9cVDM (14 April 2011). SEMLER, R. (1999) Maverick! The Success Story Behind the World’s most Unusual Workplace. London: Random House Business Books. SEMLER, R. 2007. Interview with Ricardo Semler. [WWW] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gJkOPxJCN1wfeature=related (13 March 2011). SENGE, P.M. (1999). It’s the learning: the real lesson of quality movement. The Journal for Quality and Participation, 22 (6)Pp.34-40. STONEMAN, P. 2010. Soft Innovation: Economics, Product Aesthetics and Creative Industries. New York: Oxford University Press.SMITH, S. AND PAQUETTE, S. (2010). Creativity, chaos and knowledge management. Business Information Review, 27 (2), pp. 118-23. BIBLIOGRAPHY BESSANT, J. 2003. High Involvement innovation: Building and Sustaining Competitive Advantage Through Continuous Change. England: John Wiley Sons. CHRISTENSEN, C.M, AND ERIK, A.R. 2004. Seeing What is Next: Using the Theories of Innovation to Predict Industry Change. USA: Harvard Business school Press. BURDETH, O.J. 1994. The Magic of Alignment. Management Decision [online journal], 32 (2), pp. 59-63. Available from Emerald at http://www.emeraldinsight.com/search.htm?st1=alignmentct=allec=1bf=1go=Go. (March 3 2011).

Friday, September 27, 2019

Media Ownership Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Media Ownership - Essay Example The essay "Media Ownership" talks about the position and power of media in the society and in the country and if its ownership and functioning should be more strictly regulated by laws. Naturally, the media has been tagged as an avenue for entertaining, informing and educating the public. This is a generalized conception that has been accepted and practiced in several areas of the world. But there cannot also be any denial of the fact that in some other parts of the world and in realistic scenarios, the media have been a platform for the promotion of social injustice, misinformation, hyping of political tension, incitement of violence and so on. Lately, and with the introduction of social media, much discussion has even gone on about sanity on the various media platform in adherence of core moral and social values. With all such concerns, the ownership of media cannot be left unattended and so the ownership of media should indeed be well regulated and if possible limited. Presently in America, there is a developing trend where a lot of foreign nationals have taken over the ownership and running of media houses. The activities of such foreign nationals and global corporations are seen in the operation of media outlets including newspapers, television, and radio. Such freedoms lead to the deepening of freedom democratic practice of the American press. Though there are also the negative effects, which includes the use of such global corporations in the sabotage of the core aims, visions, and aspirations of the American people.

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Assignment 1 Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 11

1 - Assignment Example Tuckman and Jensen’s (1977) theory offers stages that involve the development of the group internally among the members. Their theory consists of five stages which include forming, storming, and norming, performing and adjourning. In reference to Kinicki and Williams (2009), the first stage, forming, entails quantifiable accomplishments where the members get to know and understand each other (p. 441). The team members in this stage are polite, tentative and to some degree uncomfortable. It is only after the members feel comfortable that the group can move to the next stage. In the Glory Road, the team members are contented with their new coach, Haskins, and are not sure of how to behave when around their coach (Haskins & Wetzel, 2006). In the first stage of the film, the members spend time understanding and knowing each other. The cafeteria scene in the film is an example of how the team members get to know each other. The members sit down round a table and introduce themselves and share their backgrounds. The second stage of group development is storming. Kinicki and Williams (2009) denote that this stage is typified by conflicts and confusion on group roles and project necessities (p. 441). This is seen in the film Glory Road when tensions rise among the group members as they practiced. This is seen in all scenes within this stage in the film because some of the members feel like having fun and not concentrating on basketball (Haskins & Wetzel, 2006). At this stage, some other groups can also form. This is seen when the Blacks come together to defend each other against the whites. The third stage is the norming stage (Kinicki & Williams, 2009, p. 442), where the members of the group are more organized and unified. In this stage, the group has norms and rules to guide its members. Norming is portrayed in the film when the coach establishes rules for the team. It is after

State and local week 3 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

State and local week 3 - Essay Example As well, as limits the age contribution of up to 25 dollars. Chapter 55 section 7A elaborates further on the individual’s contribution to candidates, as well as penalties and event expenditure controls. The state offers partial financing to the matching grants program. The state also set electronic disclosures requirements for the candidate and committees of all contributions. Regulation of the campaign financing is an area where the state could consider putting the requirements for donor disclosure. Additionally, change the very public financing for campaigns is paramount. Having a preliminary vote for approval of a party or candidate, for example, enroll 5% of the state members to the party can also help. The state could also drop the campaign finance. It could also eliminate or review disclosure exemptions for donations as it will help detect fraudulent schemes. Reforming the federal elections commission will also serve to change the

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Project management week 7 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Project management week 7 - Essay Example There is need for dedication of all the stakeholders in the company so that these opportunities can benefit the company. As a company we believed in order to grasp these opportunities there is the need to commit the resources that will be used to venture into them. It believed resources can do marvelous things in making sure that these opportunities and goals of the business are achieved easily. Also, adequate resources will mean that the company will have a competitive advantage as compared to the rivals (Cavusgil, 2009). Furthermore, a market opportunity will present itself service or product in the company meets the newly identified need or of a market with a new or enhanced solution better than the competition. While assessing and identifying the opportunity, the managers and the executive should analyze real as well as perceived value of the opportunity, the competitive environment, risks and returns of the possible opportunity, creation and length of opportunity. This opportunity assessment will answer the many questions that include the potential market the company will venture in order to reap the fruits of this opportunity (Zisa, 2011). The opportunity in this case is the new video markets in China. The video industry in China has been growing in the past two no video company has entered this lucrative markets. Therefore, this implies this is the right time the company should enter this market bearing in market that China will present the company with other opportunities. Furthermore, venturing into China market with our video products is a suitable market. First, China presents a promising economy in the world that will boost the video business. The China’s environment will boost our business global competitiveness and sell more products. The country has extensive infrastructure that will promote the growth of the business towards attaining its goals. Furthermore, China has friendly investment policies to foreign firms. These policies

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Total reward Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 1

Total reward - Coursework Example experienced more staff movements between Business and Retail banking and few movements between Central Support functions and Corporate Banking (Wright, 2004). The foundation of reward carried out is job evaluation and the organization has 20 grades. Due to the difficulties experienced in the Mitchell Bank, this report has been made to find solution to the problems through Total Reward. The report is to analyze the effectiveness of Total Reward in MB and come up with recommendations to promote high profitability and employees’ motivation within the bank. Total reward as a term had been adopted to give reward strategy that come with extra components like development, learning together with factors of the working environment, into the benefits package (Armstrong & Brown, 2001). Total rewards are all the equipments accessible to the employer that may be applied in the attraction, motivation and maintenance of the employees. According to Armstrong, total reward approach benefits involve total effects of different reward types giving a deeper and progressing impact on employees’ commitment and motivation (Wright, 2004). The employment relation developed by the total reward approach applies total use of transactional and relational rewards and hence more appealing to the employees (Davis & Edge, 2004). Total reward could be financial or non-financial. Financial Reward (FR) constitutes job-based payment which gives base pay considering the job’s significance, and person-based pay that gives rewards in the merit’s shape pay that identify individual’s capability or contribution. Non-financial motivators are the intrinsic factors that concentrate on recognition, achievement, influence, responsibility and personal growth (Armstrong, 2012). The model of total reward applied in this report Towers Perrin. Adopting this model would provide improvement on productivity and lowers staff turn over since it is more in details as compared to other models. The model assists

Monday, September 23, 2019

Representing Genocide in Rwanda Genocide Memorials Essay

Representing Genocide in Rwanda Genocide Memorials - Essay Example The minority who were the Tutsi people were to be executed whenever they were seen. This also applied to all Hutus who tried to sympathize or help the minorities in any way. Many have been blamed for these atrocities. One such body is the United Nations which has apologized to the Rwandese government for letting such horrendous acts proceed while turning a blind eye. This was in violation of the UN treaty signed shortly after the Second World War. It authoritatively stipulated that no other massacres will be allowed to occur after the world war. (BBC News, 2004) Three years after the genocide (1997), the Rwandese government decided to build a genocide museum. This is a combination of many memorials that are located throughout the country. The purpose of these memorial sites is to preserve the memory of the massacre and to allow people the chance of remembering their lost ones. The memorials come in two varieties; the first category is a site for burying all those people who lost their lives as a result of the massacre. The second category has bones placed in enclosures and also bodies put in enclosures. These memorials have solicited mixed reactions from various culturalists and experts. Some people have called them impersonal and foreign. They have claimed that the slogan adopted for these memorial sites does not fit the Rwandese experience. This is because the slogan was borrowed from the Jewish Holocaust of the early twentieth Century. Most of the critics have claimed that ides have been borrowed from foreign occurrences and do not reflect the Rwandese experience. Others have even gone as far as claiming that the genocide memorials show how Rwanda is still experiencing post colonialism and is not free to express itself. This is because they feel that the whole arrangement was designed to woo audiences from the West- these mostly include tourists. Other observers have been quite positive about the whole idea. One such tourist was Caplan, an anthropologist and a lecturer in a University in London. She praises the way the pieces were displayed and claims that she can identify with them personally. She also Feels that the work was professional and that everything was just how she had expected it to be. (Caplan, 2007) It is therefore imperative for one to examine all sides of the issue to come with a valid conclusion on the matter. It is clear that the issue is controversial as many people hold strong opinions about it; genocide is no easy matter to tackle. One must put in mind that there are people who hold the subject close to them since as they may be living under the effects of what the Genocide did to them. Literature review Raymond Williams (1999) believed that contemporary theorists had missed the mark. They tried explaining social relations against an economic and political backdrop. They make human beings seem passive and do not consider the individual perspective. He also believed in the idea of Total expression. This meant that it was possible for one explain historical traditions on the basis of this concept. Williams (1999) uses the idea to study the European culture in the nineteenth century. He explains their way of life based on traditions as their foundation. The latter mentioned theorists also

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Cultural Issues in Middle School Essay Example for Free

Cultural Issues in Middle School Essay Middle school is one of the most difficult situations of transition. Middle schoolers are awkward, hard to deal with and confused. They aren’t children but certainly not adults. They are egocentric to say the least and have little concern for the consequences of their actions. Yet, they are also one of the best ages to work with, if one is willing to try to understand their difficult lives. The culture in middle school can be broken down as such: sexuality, intellect, and social status. Sexually, these students have to deal with their changing bodies and feelings. They also have to try to understand how these feelings and changes fit in appropriately within the community. This is the area they are most sensitive toward. Intellectually, students have to decide if being â€Å"smart† is something they are willing to do. In some environments, being smart is cool, so those students who are gifted have no trouble fitting in. In other schools, these students are outcasts. When it is not cool to be smart, many students have a hard decision to make. If they show their gifts, they may sacrifice social standing. When it is cool, the struggling students feel even more left out and troubled. At times, these students may even act dumber to try to hide how much they truly struggle. Social status varies with each school environment. Wealth, possessions, address, family legacy and athletic ability are all indicators of success. Middle school is a contest and students are constantly scrutinizing each other to see who will win, popularity being the prize, of course. There are leaders and followers; the status symbols then change as the leaders themselves change. Whether it is the newest clothing label, shoe or track star, the culture of middle school is dominated by judgment. Evaluation The Illuminative Model of Evaluation rests its assessment on process. It appraises based on qualitative analysis of a situation in order to understand its initiation as clearly as its conclusion. Thus, in order to evaluate a situation, one must observe the effects of the process not simply look at data. The following tools of assessment are based upon that model and are applied to the curriculum overall. Several lessons will be used that typify the learning environment created within the classroom. Evaluation One: How does this lesson provide skills that work outside the testing environment? To evaluate this lesson, the calendar of lessons was assessed. Questions were asked such as, how do the lessons flow and what overall messages are the students receiving? Can they define, find and apply the concepts discussed in class? Upon reviewing the lessons, they seem to present isolated concepts. The entire unit is research process and narrative writing techniques which are two genres and should be taught separately. These lessons are trying to do way too much too fast. Middle school students are more successful when you break the process down and connect it to real world reasons for completing the work. If they would’ve started with day five, â€Å"reading the memoir,† then they could use the text to help define and find the language. Once they can do that, then they can apply the concepts such as writing dialogue, good word choice and using sensory language. The lesson plans as they are, present interesting skill sets but they aren’t connected to the question of, how do I apply this to reading and writing outside school. These skills might help them pass a test, but if you ask them to write dialogue, they will not know how. The non-fiction author board is a great idea but is not developed. They are completing tasks that have a function. This project should be enhanced by having students read Georgia authors and doing actual research and a research project on their author. This schedule needs to be totally revamped in order to serve the real world needs of the students. Evaluation Two: Does this lesson connect to a home environment? As is, there is no connection with the home environment. This will lessen the importance of the work and disconnect the families from what the students are learning. To enhance the process, when having the students write narratives, why not have them collect narratives from family members? This validates the home environment while creating an interest in the school environment at home. For the research section, they could research their family tree or conduct a survey at home regarding their family’s favorite authors. The greater the involvement from the home, the greater opportunity to work with the family for the student’s well being. Evaluation Three: What purpose does technology serve? This also needs improvement. There is no use of technology which works against evaluative point number one. In the larger society, students must be technologically literate. Students should research using the internet, present their projects via power point, and utilize online oral history collections to hear memoirs. Computers should not only be used to type in language arts but should be used as a tool for diversification of learning styles and presentation methods. Conclusion Overall, the learning process in this curriculum model needs to be improved. The questions of evaluation, based on the Illuminative Model, show that the process is flawed. Although there are many interesting lessons, they don’t flow together to teach an entire concept that can be applied to a real world learning situation. The terms need to be taught as part of an entire concept. Students can then define, find and apply what they have learned rather than simply be occupied for a 45 minute block of time. According to this model, students are more successful when the process is improved. The product should be the last point of evaluation rather than the first.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Transducers used in the Cardiac Ultrasound Machine.

Transducers used in the Cardiac Ultrasound Machine. Transducers used in the Cardiac Ultrasound Machine. Abstract: Ultrasound imaging depends on the ability of piezoelectric crystals to generate sound when excited with alternating current and the reverse effect of charge accumulation or current flow when such crystals are subjected to pressure from sound waves. The first known ultrasound imaging machine was designed by K. T. Dussik in Australia in 1937. However, despite its widespread acceptance today, medical ultrasound did not develop as rapidly as X-ray imaging. Despite the relatively slow start, medical ultrasound imaging is very widely accepted today because there is no ionising radiation involved and hence the procedure is relatively safe. Ultrasound equipment is also cheaper as compared to X-ray imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, MRI and other techniques associated with nuclear medicine. The procedure involves minimal patient discomfort and is very useful for examining the soft tissues or the developing foetus. A dramatic increase in the number of older patients with chronic he art and valve disease has resulted in a prolific demand for the ultrasound cardiac imaging machines which can satisfy the requirements associated with fast and cost effective measurement of cardiac anatomy or function. One of the critical elements in the medical ultrasound imaging system is the ultrasound transducer without which signal processing and visualisation of the soft tissue images is impossible. Although many naturally occurring substances such as quartz exhibit the piezoelectric effect, lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic ferroelectric materials have for many years been used for biomedical applications because of their superior characteristics for soft tissue imaging.   Polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF), transducer material has demonstrated advantages as a high frequency receiver. Single or multilayer transducers made of these elements can be used for ultrasound imaging as single transducers operating in A-mode or a two or three dimensional transducer array for B-mode, C-mode or M-mode ultrasound imaging. This brief essay takes a look at transducers for medical ultrasound. The principle of operation of a cardiac ultrasound imaging device is based on the information that is provided by the varying delay times of echoes that are reflected from various depths of the human body tissue as a result of the ultrasound pulses that are generated by an ultrasound transducer being incident on the body tissue. Delay times of echoes from different depths are different and ultrasound is reflected from the interface of different types of tissues. A Doppler shift in frequency is also generated as a result of moving objects and the attenuation of ultrasound waves depends on the type of tissue that the ultrasound wave is travelling through. The ultrasound transducer which is responsible for the generation and detection of reflected ultrasound is, therefore, an essential component of the ultrasound imaging device. Ultrasound transducers work on the basis of the piezoelectric effect in which an alternating voltage applied to piezoelectric crystal material causes the crysta ls to become electrically polarised as a result of the applied electric field and hence vibrate with the alternating voltage to produce sound. Such crystals also become electrically polarised when stress is applied to them and hence any sound waves which are incident on them result in charge accumulation on the crystal surface and hence the generation of an alternating voltage. Thus, an ultrasound transducer consists of a suitable piezoelectric material sandwiched between electrodes that are used to provide a fluctuating electric field when the transducer is required to generate ultrasound. When the transducer is required to detect ultrasound, the electrodes may be used to detect any fluctuating voltages produced as a result of the polarisation of the crystals of the piezoelectric material in response to incident sound which generates fluctuating mechanical stresses on the material. Piezoelectric materials include quartz, ferroelectric crystals such as tourmaline and Rochelle salt a s well as the group of materials known as the piezoelectric ceramics, which include lead titanate (PbTiO3) and lead zirconate (PbZrO3). These materials are also known as piezoelectric ceramics which are used in ultrasound transducers for biomedical applications.Polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) is another transducer material which has demonstrated advantages as a high frequency receiver. Piezoelectric ceramics are sold with the brand name PXE by Philips Company and are solid solutions of lead titanate (PbTiO3), and lead zirconate (PbZrO3) which have been modified by additives which are a group of piezoelectric ceramics known as PZT. PXE materials are hard, chemically inert and unaffected by a humid environment. The crystals in a ferroelectric material of which PXE is made up of align themselves randomly in a number of directions. With such a random orientation of crystals, the material will exhibit no piezoelectric effect. In order to have a piezoelectric material which is capable of being used for ultrasound transducers, the material has to be subjected to a strong electric field at high temperatures. This has the effect of permanently locking the crystals in the direction of the applied electric field and making the crystal piezoelectric in the direction of the electric field. Hence, a piezoelectric ceramic material may be converted into a piezoelectric material in any given direction by applying a strong electric field to the material in the given direction at an elevated temperature. This treatment, which is known as poling, is the final stage in the manufacture of a PXE piezoelectric. Metal electrodes perpendicular to the poling axis are deposited on the material so that an alternating electric field may be applied to generate ultrasound or ultrasound vibrations may be sensed by sensing the electric field across the piezoelectric material. The voltage across a piezoelectric ceramic PXE material is usually directly proportional to the applied stress. The construction of a simple, single element piezoelectric transducer is as shown below. The Construction of a Single Element Piezoelectric Transducer Ultrasound imaging in the A-mode directs a narrow beam of ultrasound into the tissue being scanned and the echo which may be displayed on a CRT screen provides a measure of the distance between reflecting surfaces in the body. In the B-scan mode, the echo signal is brightness modulated which makes it possible for information related to tissue depth to be displayed on the screen in a visually effective manner. An ultrasound transducer array operating in B-mode permits a picture of the tissues within a patient’s body to be displayed on a CRT device. M-mode ultrasound imaging presents tissue movement by scanning an A or B – line on a monitor as a function of time and movements in this line indicate movements in the tissues within the body. In C-mode ultrasound imaging a second transducer is used to detect echoes sent out by the first transducer, presenting a 2-D map of the ultrasound attenuation within tissues. Having discussed the principles of operation of a piezoelectric medical ultrasound transducer, it is now appropriate to consider the practical problems associated with the construction of such transducers. This is done below. The Design of Ultrasound Transducers A transducer which is constructed out of piezoelectric material will have a natural frequency of resonance and it is appropriate that the transducer should be excited with alternating electric field which matches the natural resonant frequency of oscillation of the material. The ultrasound frequencies that are used in medical imaging applications range from 1 MHz to 15 MHz and echocardiography is usually performed at frequencies of 2.5 MHz. Hence, transducers which are used for ultrasound imaging have to be tuned for different frequencies. For a transducer material in which ultrasound waves travel at the speed c, with a resonant frequency f, the thickness of the material is related by the formula f=c/2d. Hence, it is possible to tune various transducers constructed of the same material to different frequencies by adjusting the thickness of the material. The ultrasound transducer can be excited by a continuous wave, a pulsed wave, or a single voltage pulse depending on the requirement s for observing a continuous image, echo ranging or other tissue measurements. The rear face of the piezoelectric crystal material is usually supported by a backing material which is tungsten loaded araldite, so that the vibrations in the piezoelectric material are rapidly damped after the initial excitation. It is important to couple the piezoelectric transducer to the body of a patient so that the incident ultrasound energy can be effectively transmitted into the body tissue that is being scanned. In order to do this, matching layers of suitable acoustic material are used along with a gel which makes it possible for the ultrasound waves to penetrate the tissue more efficiently. As far as possible, the characteristic acoustic impedance of the tissue being scanned is matched with the acoustic impedance of the transducer. The characteristic acoustic impedance of the tissue is defined as: In the formula, c is the speed of ultrasound in human tissue which is about 1540 m/sec with a variation of +/- 6% and   is the tissue density. K is the bulk elastic modulus of the tissue being scanned. The acoustic parameters of an ultrasound transducer include its nominal frequency, the peak frequency which is the highest frequency response measured from the frequency spectrum, the bandwidth of the transducer which is the difference between the highest and the lowest – 6 dB level in the frequency spectrum, the pulse width response time of the transducer, which is the time duration of the time domain envelope which is 20 dB above the rising and decaying cycles of a transducer response, the loop sensitivity for a medium on which a test is performed which is characterised by: Here, Vo is the excitation pulse voltage in volts, while Vx is the received signal voltage from the transducer.   The signal to noise ratio for a biomedical ultrasound transducer is also an important parameter for an ultrasound transducer and this is defined as: In the above expression, Vx is the received signal voltage from the transducer in volts in response to a specified tone burst or pulse and Vn is the noise floor in volts. The signal to noise ratio for an ultrasound transducer is a measure of the noise associated with the transducer, measuring instrument or cables and this is a good measure of how sensitive a transducer is. In addition to the previously mentioned parameters, geometrical parameters for a transducer describe how the acoustic pressure generated by a transducer varies across the axial and cross-sectional fields of a transducer. These variations are illustrated below: Axial Beam Profile for an Ultrasound Transducer Cross – Sectional Beam Profile for an Ultrasound Transducer he detailed construction of an ultrasound transducer for medical applications involving the shaping of the piezoelectric material, matching layers, housing and backing materials etc is presently conducted using computational techniques such as Finite Element Modelling of ultrasound transducers through the use of software packages such as Ultrasim and other commercially available software. In the overall design, efforts have to be made to ensure that the overall design will be optimised so as to deliver a sufficiently high power of ultrasound into the tissue being imaged and as far as possible there is best possible sound impedance matching between the transducer and the scanned tissue. Design of the backing material in an ultrasound transducer is important because this design determines the ring down time of the transducer, which is critical for low noise and optimal axial resolution of the transducer. Trends in Transducer Design for Echocardiography Only the simplest equipment for echocardiography will use a single ultrasound transducer and there is a trend towards design of echocardiography equipment which uses two or even three dimensional arrays of ultrasound transducers to provide superior quality 2 –D or 3-D computer generated pictures of the organ being imaged.   Even the relatively simpler equipment being used these days has two or more ultrasound transducers fitted into the transducer probe. The array of transducers are capable of generating a shaped beam of ultrasound which can be appropriately focused using electronic digital signal processing techniques to provide better images and resolution. Although the relatively simple medical ultrasound scanners cost about  £1000 per piece, reasonably decent transducer assemblies for a decent Philips or Toshiba ultrasound machines can cost  £1500 for the transducer alone. Transducer arrays for two or three dimensional ultrasound imaging equipment can be much more ex pensive because of the large number of transducers that are employed in such imaging equipment.   For better quality ultrasonic imaging to be possible, there is a requirement for enhanced bandwidth transducers, higher frequency transducer arrays and sophisticated digital signal processing circuits. There is also a trend towards transducer miniaturisation which will make intracavitary, intraurethral, or intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) investigation possible. The current imaging frequency range of 1 MHz to 15 MHz is expected to be increased to 20 MHz to 100 MHz and at these frequencies, microsonography devices using miniature ultrasound transducers with higher sensitivities are expected to provide much better and higher resolution images using catheter based transducers which are less then 2mm in diameter and are capable of being placed in veins.   New ultrasound transducer materials are likely to provide transducers which are far more sensitive then those available presently and consume lower power. These transducers can be operated from battery powered portable equipment and th ere are indications in literature that with the availability of such devices, it is likely that the stethoscope will be replaced by miniature ultrasound equipment. New trends in ultrasound transducer construction are also moving towards composite transducer construction in which a composite of two piezoelectric materials is used to design the transducer. Ultrasound transducers are fairly rugged and the piezoelectric material does not loose its properties unless exposed to high temperatures approaching the Curie temperature for the material are reached or there are strong alternating or direct electrical fields opposing the direction of poling for the material. Mechanical stresses imposed on the piezoelectric materials should not exceed the specified limits and although the specified limits vary for different types of materials, mechanical stress in excess of 2.5 MPa may be considered as likely to cause permanent damage. Ultrasound transducers are capable of being designed to operate in liquid mediums and the piezoelectric material does not react with water or gel.   Conclusion Materials with piezoelectric properties such as lead titanate (PbTiO3) and lead zirconate (PbZrO3) lend themselves to being treated by poling to generate as well as detect ultrasound waves when subjected to alternating electric fields or mechanical stresses. Ultrasound transducers can be made out of these materials and these transducers can be designed for specified resonance frequencies for use in medical imaging. The detailed design of such transducers is an exciting and involving undertaking which is capable of being assisted by finite element simulations. Advances in transducer design involving the use of new materials, miniaturisation and the use of arrays of transducers promises to revolutionise medical imaging in the future by providing high resolution 3-D ultrasound images and the field is full of promise for device designers as well as computer engineers of the future. References/ Bibliography Web Sources   Abboud, Najib N et al. â€Å"Finite Element Modelling for Ultrasonic Transducers†. Weidlinger Associates Inc. SPIE Int. Symp. Medical Imaging 1998, San Diego, Feb 21-27, 1998. August 4, 2005. http://www.wai.com/AppliedScience/Software/Pzflex/Papers/pzflex-spie_mi98.pdf Binder, T. â€Å"Three-Dimensional Echocardiography Principles and Promises†. Journal of Clinical and Basic Cardiology 2002; 5 (Issue 2), 149-152. August 4, 2005. http://www.kup.at/kup/pdf/1137.pdf Brandt, Einar. â€Å"Segmentation Techniques for Echocardiographic Image Sequences†. University of Linkopings. 1998. August 4, 2005. http://www.imv.liu.se/klinfys/einar/publications/pdf_open/Ex1934.pdf Bridal, Lori S et al. â€Å"Milestones on the Road to Higher Resolution, Quantitative, and Functional Ultrasonic Imaging†. PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE, VOL. 91, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2003. August 6, 2005. http://dei-s1.dei.uminho.pt/outraslic/lebiom/ultra/ultrasonic01232192.pdf Diederichs, Rolf. â€Å"Ultrasound Transducer Library†. Diederichs, Rolf. March, 1998. August 4, 2005. http://www.ndt.net/wshop/wshop_tr/trans_li.htm Eberhard, Brunner. â€Å"Ultrasound System Considerations and their Impact on Front-End Components,† Analog Devices, Inc., 2002. August 4, 2005. http://www.analog.com/library/analogDialogue/archives/36-03/ultrasound/UltrasoundFrontend.pdf Erikson, Kenneth R et al. â€Å"Ultrasound in Medicine – A Review†. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SONICS AND ULTRASONICS, VOL. SU-21, NO. 3, JULY 1971. August 4, 2005. http://www.ieee-uffc.org/ultrasonics/teaching/t7430144.pdf Fink, Mathias. â€Å"Time Reversed Acoustics†. Scientific American Inc, 1999. August 4, 2005. http://www4.ncsu.edu/~fouque/fink.pdf G. Fleury, R. Berriet, O. Le Baron, B. Huguenin. â€Å"New piezocomposite transducers for therapeutic ultrasound†. 2nd International Symposium on Therapeutic Ultrasound Seattle 31/07 02/08/02. August 4, 2005. http://www.imasonic.com/Papers/ISTU2Ima.pdf Genadiy V. Leonov,, Vladimir N. Khmelev, Roman V. Barsukov, Sergey N. Tsyganok, Alexey N. Slivin, Andrey V. Shalunov. â€Å"Advancement of Ultrasonic Technologies Efficiency, Development of Ultrasonic Devices for the Manufactures, Medical Institutions and the Agriculture Requirements†. Biysk Technological Institute. 2004. August 4, 2005. http://www.bti.secna.ru/institute_/laboratory/us/downloads/vestnic_e.pdf Goel, Malti. â€Å"Electret sensors, filters and MEMS devices: New challenges in materials research†. Current Science. Volume 85. No. 4. August 25, 2004. August 4, 2005. http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/aug252003/443.pdf Hazas, Mike and Andy Ward. â€Å"A Novel Broadband Ultrasonic Location System†. University of Cambridge, United Kingdom. 2002. August 4, 2005. http://www.comp.lancs.ac.uk/~hazas/Hazas02_ANovelBULS.pdf Holm, Sverre. â€Å"Ultrasim – A Toolbox for Ultrasound Field Simulation†. University of Oslo. 2000. August 6, 2005. http://heim.ifi.uio.no/~sverre/papers/01_Matlab.pdf Krochak, Paul and Stefan Story. â€Å"Acoustic Densification of Multiphase Stream†. University of British Columbia. June 19, 2005. August 4, 2005. http://www.math.ubc.ca/~FluidLab/people/sstorey/Densificatio_Final_Report.pdf Ladabaum, Igal et al. â€Å"Surface Micro machined Capacitive Ultrasonic Transducer†. ieee transactions on ultrasonics, ferroelectrics, and frequency control, vol. 45, no. 3, may 1998. August 4, 2005. http://piezo.stanford.edu/library/papers/IL1998.pdf Lewin, Peter A. â€Å"Diagnostic Ultrasound: A Glimpse into the Next Decade†. Drexel University. 2004. August 4, 2005. http://www.wma.net/e/publications/pdf/2000/lewin.pdf M. Greenstein, P. Lum, H. Yoshida, M.S. Seyed-Bolorforosh. â€Å"A 2.5 MHz 2D Array with Z-Axis Electrically Conductive Backing†. 2004. August 4, 2005. http://www.hpl.hp.com/techreports/96/HPL-96-89.pdf Measurement Specialties Inc. â€Å"Piezo Film Sensors – Technical Manual†. Measurement Specialties Inc. April 2, 1999. August 4, 2005. http://www.media.mit.edu/resenv/classes/MAS836/Readings/MSI-techman.pdf Michael Greenstein. â€Å"Multilayer Piezoelectric Transducers for Medical Ultrasound Transducers†. Hewlett Packard Laboratories. 2000. August 4, 2005. http://www.hpl.hp.com/techreports/95/HPL-95-79.ps Morgan Electro Ceramics. â€Å"Introduction: Piezoelectric Ceramics†. Morgan Electro Ceramics. May 16, 2001. August 4, 2005. http://www.morganelectroceramics.nl/pdfs/tech.pdf North Dakota State University. â€Å"Imaging Systems†. North Dakota State University. 2004. August 4, 2005. http://venus.ece.ndsu.nodak.edu/~schroeder/Imaging%20Systems.doc Nottingham University. â€Å"Medical Ultrasound†. Nottingham University. 2004. August 4, 2005. http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/physics/ugrad/courses/mod_home/f31ab1/notes/us.doc Petersen R.B. and J. Hutchins. â€Å"The iE33 intelligent echocardiography system†. Philips Ultrasound Medical Systems. 2004. August 4, 2005. http://www.medical.philips.com/main/news/assets/docs/medicamundi/mm_vol48_no3/11_Peterson.pdf Picture IQ.com. â€Å"Ultrasound Equipment†. Picture IQ.com. 2005. August 6, 2005. http://www.pictureiq.com/piq/ph30-63999-Ultrasound.mspx Powis, Raymond. L and G. Wayne Moore. â€Å"The Silent Revolution: Catching up with the Contemporary Composite Transducer†. JDMS 20:395–405 November/December 2004. August 4, 2005. http://www.medphysics.wisc.edu/mp666/powis_moore_contemp_trans.pdf Rainer Stotzka, Helmut Widmann, Tim Muller, Klaus Schlote Holubek, Hartmut Gemmeke, Nicole Ruiter, Georg Gobel. â€Å"Prototype of a new 3D ultrasound computer tomography system: transducer design and data recording†. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. 2004. August 4, 2005. http://www.stotzka.de/Publications/stotzka2004.1.pdf RATSIMANDRESY, Leong, P.Mauchamp, D. Dinet, N. Felix, R. Dufait. â€Å"A 3 MHz, Two Dimensional Array Based on Piezocomposite for Medical Imaging†. IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium Proceedings. 2002. August 4, 2005. http://www.vermon.com/Biblio_Vermon/IEEE_3MHz%202D%20Array.pdf Ritter, Timothy et al. â€Å"Single Crystal PZN/PT-Polymer Composites for Ultrasound Transducer Applications†. IEEE transactions on ultrasonics, ferroelectrics, and frequency control, vol. 47, no. 4, July 2000. August 4, 2005. http://www.ieee-uffc.org/archive/public/opapers/jul792.pdf Ronald E McKeighen. â€Å"Design Guidelines for Medical Ultrasonic Arrays†. Acoustic Imaging Transducers Inc. 2000. August 4, 2005. http://www.wai.com/AppliedScience/Software/Pzflex/Papers-other/spie-man.pdf Saleh K. Y. and N.B. Smith. â€Å"Two-dimensional ultrasound phased array design for tissue ablation for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia†. Pennsylvania State University. May, 2003. August 4, 2005. http://www.bioe.psu.edu/ultrasound/Research/Saleh%20Smith%20IJH04.pdf Schmidt, M. â€Å"Ultrasonic Signal Processing Chip For Intraluminal Catheter Based Systems†. Fraunhofer Institute of Microelectronic Circuits and Systems. 2004. August 4, 2005. http://www.imec.be/esscirc/papers-96/143.pdf Shindler, Daniel M. â€Å"Hand-held Ultrasound and the Stethoscope†. Robert Wood Johnson Medical School. 2004. August 4, 2005. http://www.bbriefings.com/pdf/950/shindler.pdf Ultran. â€Å"Medical Ultrasonic Transducers†. Ultran. 2004. August 4, 2005. http://www.ultrangroup.com/pdfs/ultran_trans_cat.pdf University of Central London. â€Å"An Overview of Existing Medical Imaging Techniques†. University of Central London. 2004. August 4, 2005. http://www.medphys.ucl.ac.uk/research/borl/homepages/florian/thesis/pdf_files/p35_44.pdf University of Lancaster. â€Å"Medical Ultrasound Imaging†. University of Lancaster. 2004. August 4, 2005. http://www.lancs.ac.uk/depts/physics/teaching/py336/Ultrasound.doc Wang, Haifeng, Tim Ritter, Wenwu Cao, and K. Kirk Shung. â€Å"Passive Materials for High Frequency Ultrasound Transducers†. The Society of Photo optical Instrumentation Engineers, SPIE. 1999. August 6, 2005. http://www.bioe.psu.edu/labs/NIH/pass_mat.pdf Weigang, Beate, G. Wayne Moore, M.A., James Gessert, William H. Phillips, Mark Schafer. â€Å"The Methods and Effects of Transducer Degradation on Image Quality and the Clinical Efficacy of Diagnostic Sonography†. Sonic Technology Laboratories. 2004. August 4, 2005. http://www.4sonora.com/products/Transducer%20Degradation%20on%20Image.pdf Wells, P.N.T. â€Å"Ultrasonic Imaging of the Human Body†. Bristol General Hospital. 1999. August 4, 2005. http://www.hrcc.on.ca/Research/bios/people/pattersonfiles/Wells%20paper.pdf Whitehouse, Kamin. Fred Jiang, Chris Karlof, Alec Woo, David Culler. â€Å"Sensor Field Localisation: A Deployment and Emperical Analysis†. University of California, Berkley. April 9, 2004. August 4, 2005. http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~kamin/pubs/whitehouse04ultrasoundUCBtechReport.pdf References Related to Ultrasound Transducers from British Libraries . Medical Imaging 1999: Ultrasonic Transducer Engineering: 24-25 February 1999, San Diego, California. Bellingham, Washington: SPIE, 1999. . Medical Ultrasound: Mirror Transducer Systems for High Resolution Imaging. 1984. American Association of Physicists in Medicine. Medical Physics of CT and Ultrasound: Tissue Imaging and Characterization: Summer School: Papers and Discussions. American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. Ultrasound Practice Committee Report for Cleaning and Preparing Endocavitary Ultrasound Transducers Between Patients. Laurel, Md.: American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, 1995. American Society of Ultrasound Technical Specialists and Society of Diagnostic Medical Sonographers. Medical Ultrasound. New York: Wiley. Barnett, S. B., G. Kossoff, and World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Safety and Standardisation in Medical Ultrasound: Issues and Recommendations Regarding Thermal Mechanisms for Biological Effects of Ultrasound: Symposium: Papers. Pergamon Press, 1992. British Medical Ultrasound Society. BMUS Bulletin. London: British Medical Ultrasound Society, 2003. Davies, Christopher Mark. The Construction and Design Characteristics of Bimorph Shear Wave Transducers. 1993. Fleming, David G., et al. Indwelling and Implantable Pressure Transducers: Based on Workshop Held in Cleveland, Ohio on December 4 and 5, 1975, Sponsored by the Biotechnology Resources Branch (RR-00857) and the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (GM-14267) of the National Institutes of Health. Cleveland: CRC Press, 1976. Great Britain. Medical Devices Agency. A Comparative Technical Evaluation of Eleven Ultrasound Scanners for Examination of the Breast. Medical Devices Agency, 2001. Kuhn, A., P. A. Payne, and Dias. Design and Construction of Ultrasound Equipment for Characterization of Elastic Mechanic Properties of Dental Restorative Materials. Manchester: UMIST, 1991. Luukkala, Mauri. Second Harmonic Generation of Ultrasound in Quartz Transducers. Turku, 1967. Mok, W. H., M. S. Beck, and Dias. Flow Imaging Using Pulsed Ultrasound Transducers. Manchester: UMIST, 1986. Nakano, Hitoo, et al. XX International Congress The Fetus As a Patient and 6th Ian Donald Inter-University of Medical Ultrasound. 2004. Nicoll, J. J. and University of Edinburgh. Medical Ultrasound: Mirror Transducer Systems for High Resolution Imaging. University of Edinburgh, 1984. Preston, R. C., et al. The Performance of the NPL Ultrasound Beam Calibrator: Part 1 Physiotherapy Transducers. Teddington: National Physical Laboratory, 1986. Ruttenberg, Robert and Simon Peck. Transducer Development for Medical Dynamic Measurements. 2000. Shung, K. Kirk and Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers. Medical Imaging 1998: Ultrasonic Transducer Engineering: 25-26 February 1998, San Diego, California. Bellingham, Washington: SPIE, 1998. Society of Diagnostic Medical Sonographers. JDMS: Journal of Diagnostic Medical Sonography. Philadelphia: Lippincott for the Society of Diagnostic Medical Sonographers. Society of Ultrasound in Medicine of the Republic of China. Journal of Medical Ultrasound. Taipei. Turnbull, Daniel H. and University of Toronto Department of Medical Biophysics. Two-Dimensional Transducer Arrays fo