Wednesday, January 29, 2020
The KBR Swindon Essay INTRODUCTION The KBR Swindon warehouse facility is responsible for the receipt, storage, maintenance and out-loading of equipment in support of KBR global contracts. It is also the long-term storage and logistic facility for UK KBR based projects. The Warehouse Manager has overall Health and Safety responsibility for all the projects working out of this facility. The Swindon Safety Management System is based on BS OHSAS 18001:2007 certification. As part of KBR Management System review, the Swindon Warehouse completes quarterly Project Status Review (PSR) to feed information in to the overall KBR management system review. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The aim of this report is to ensure that all projects working in this facility are in compliance with the KBR Health and Safety management system and is meeting legal requirements. This report will also provide an opportunity to review the effective communication and cooperation between different projects sharing one facility and identify the effectiveness of the management system, conclusions, recommendations and an action plan if improvements are required. METHODOLOGY The methodology of this audit is to review the policies, objectives and management system of the KBR Swindon warehouse facility for the safe receipt, storage and maintenance of equipment. This will entail reviewing the implementations of risk assessments, communications between the management and the workforce which includes compliance with current legislation, KBR Instructions and Procedures, various safety meetings and the KBR Safety Policy. The documentation that will be used in the audit will include: The warehouse Health and Safety plan to ensure that there is management commitment to health and safety in the warehouse. Emergency procedures to ensure suitable and sufficient procedures are in place in case of an emergency. Minutes of meetings to review whether Health and Safety concerns are being discussed and review the outcome and corrective actions. Accident records to assess whether there are any trends and significant near miss incidents. Risk assessments to ensure that all risks has been assessed and that mitigation measures put in place is suitable and sufficient to control the risk as low as reasonably practicable. Method statements to ensure that the tasks are being conducted in a safe manner. Training records to ensure that all employees and visitors are aware of the Health and Safety arrangements. DESCRIPTION OF THE ORGANISATION The building is a large 240,000ft2 open-plan warehouse containing two-storey offices on the North end of the warehouse. The warehouse also has 2 integral two-storey offices, welfare and canteen units. The warehouse is a rented facility and the Warehouse Manager has regular meetings with the landlord representative to deal with issues regarding the fabric of the buildings, services and surrounding hard standing within the tenanted estate. The occupancy of the warehouse consists of six KBR staff including the warehouse manager. Approximately five agency employees are used dependant on the activities scheduled for the week. Main work patterns for the warehouse staff are to move the equipment in to the testing area, test the equipment,Ã clean and fix any defective equipment to ensure the readiness for deployment. The main risks to the warehouse staff include forklift truck operations, manual handling and mechanical hazards working with power tools. In addition, the offices at the warehouse are used as a call centre which is completely separate from the work being conducted in the storage facility. This is a secure access area and is set up in an open-plan office environment with approximately 30 desks. This call centre is manned 24 hours a day and will always have a minimum of 2 occupants. However, occupancy could increase to 30 for training days, interviews and meetings. The main risks to the call centre operators are Work Related Upper Limb Disorders as a result of poor ergonomics and lone working hazards. LEGAL ENVIRONMENT There is no Health and Safety Executive (HSE) or Environmental Agency (EA) censures or improvement notices placed on the site by the HSE or EA. Pertinent hazards addressed by risk assessments at this facility are categorised below. There is a duty on the Warehouse manager to ensure that adequate arrangements are in place for work equipment as described in The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER). A lot of different types of machinery will be used in the warehouse area which the warehouse manager will need to ensure complies with the PUWER before they are commissioned for use. Regulations 4 to 10 sets out the management duties of PUWER covering the selection of suitable equipment, maintenance, inspection, specific risks, information, instructions and training. Seeing as the equipment has been bought second hand, it will need to be inspected by a competent person, producing a risk assessment and providing information, instruction and training to all warehouse staff on the use of the machinery. Regulations 11 to 24 of PUWER cover guarding of dangerous parts of work equipment, the provision of appropriate stop and emergency stop controls, stability, suitable and sufficient lighting and suitable warning markings or devices. The inspection of machinery will identify dangerous parts of the equipmentÃ and the warehouse manager will need to ensure that the guards are fitted to the machines before the machines are commissioned. The Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 (LOLER) apply in relation to all work activities undertaken by KBR where lifting equipment and operations as defined by the regulations are used. This legislation expands on the general requirements of the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 and complements the requirements of the Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER). KBR has a duty under these regulations in situations where lifting equipment is used by employees at work, to ensure that the lifting equipment and associated lifting operations are carried out safely. In addition, persons who have any control of lifting operations, or who supervise or manage the use of lifting equipment also have a duty under the Regulations, but only to the extent of their control. LOLER requires the Warehouse manager to conduct a risk assessment on the forklift trucks which will be used inside the warehouse and the measures needed to eliminate or control the ris ks. Regulation 6 of the Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992 and its supporting Approved Code of Practice (ACOP) provides the warehouse manager with general requirements about ventilation of the warehouse and equipment used to ventilate the warehouse. Regulation 7 of The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 (COSHH) requires the warehouse manager to prevent or control the exposure of employees to substances hazardous to their health. Compliance with this Regulation is particularly important as incident reports from the warehouse has indicated a near miss incident where an employee took receipt of a delivery and spilled a chemical due to poorly packaged bottles. If any of the risk assessments identifies that personal protection is required, then the Warehouse manager will need to ensure that personal protection equipment (PPE) is provided in accordance with the Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992. The Warehouse manager needs to ensure that a stock of PPE is available for visitors and employees who doÃ not have the right PPE when entering the warehouse. The Warehouse manager also has a duty under The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 (RRFSO) to conduct a suitable and sufficient Fire Risk Assessment and to ensure that Fire safety arrangements are in place to elimination or reduction of risks from dangerous substances. The warehouse manager faces the challenge to manage both the warehouse and the call centre employees during an emergency. Under the same regulations the Warehouse manager should ensure means are available for fire-fighting and fire detection and that there are adequate emergency routes and exits from the warehouse. KBR will have generally assessed fire evacuation routes, means of detection and raising the alarm at all of its sites. Details of these arrangements are usually contained in the fire risk assessments kept at each site. KBR managers are required to do the following to maintain fire prevention measures: Ensure that a suitable fire risk assessment is in place. Ensure that any actions arising from external inspections are acted upon in an appropriate and timely manner. Often this will mean monitoring improvements to be carried out by the client, and in all cases will require the addition of information to local health, safety and environmental plans. Carry out regular housekeeping checks to ensure that items are not being stored inappropriately, especially near hot or electrical equipment, that escape routes are not blocked and that fire safety equipment has not been interfered with. Ensure employees do not increase the fire risk at an office or similar by using faulty electrical goods, smoking in a non-designated area or storing refuse inappropriately. Ensure that records are completed whenever there have been any checks or maintenance of fire safety equipment/fixtures using Fire Equipment Inspection Sheet. Ensure fire prevention measures are communicated to staff, contractors and visitors. The Health and Safety (Consultation with Employees) Regulations 1996 (HSCER) requires the Warehouse manager to consult employees on the information required about risks to their health and safety and preventative measures in place. All management and staff in a working environment need to follow the KBR FIRST AID guidance as a minimum standard in order to ensure the health, safety and welfare of KBR employees and other persons who may be affected by our undertakings. First Aid at work covers the initial management of any injury or illness suffered at work. First Aid can save lives and prevent minor injuries becoming major ones. Under the Health and Safety (First Aid) Regulations 1981 (as amended 2009), all workplaces must make provisions for first aid, to be readily available at appropriate times. The Control of ASBESTOS Regulations 2012 requires KBR to prevent the exposure of its employees to asbestos so far as is reasonably practicable. To achieve this KBR must ensure perform suitable and sufficient assessments in accordance with HSG 264 Asbestos: the survey guide that determines whether asbestos is present on the premises. This was arranged by the premises owner prior to KBR occupying the premises and Asbestos areas were identified within the warehouse. KBR must ensure that the warehouses owner: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Determines the risk from the asbestos. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Prepares a written plan identifying the area of the premises concerned and the measures necessary for managing the asbestos risk. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Implement the measure in the plan. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Record the measures taken to implement the plan. These measures should include adequate means for: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Monitoring the condition of any asbestos or suspected asbestos. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Maintaining the asbestos or its safe removal. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Providing information identifying the location and condition of identified asbestos to any person likely to disturb it and making this information available to the emergency services. The Control of NOISE at Work Regulations 2005 will need to be considered for a backup generator placed inside the warehouse where Warehouse staff will be working during their normal working day. The Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005 places the following duties on to the Warehouse manager: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Carry out a suitable and sufficient assessment of the risk to the health and safety of employees who are liable to noise exposure at or above any Lower Exposure Action Levels. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Record the significant findings of the assessment and ensure that it is reviewed regularly and revised as required. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Record any measurements taken. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ensure that the risk assessment has been carried out by a competent person. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Reduce noise exposure to as low as is reasonably practicable, by means of organisational and technical measures other than personal hearing protectors, where any employee is likely to be exposed above any Upper Exposure Action Levels. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Hearing protection is to be available on request for any employee exposed above the lower exposure action value, and must be provided to any employee exposed at or above the upper exposure action level. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Designated areas where employees are likely to be exposed to or above the upper action level as hearing protection zones. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ensure that no employee enters designated hearing protection zones unless they are wearing ear protectors. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Provide employees with information, training and instruction about risks, control measures, hearing protection and safe working practices. Warehouse staff will be conducting manual handling activities during their normal working day so the warehouse manager will need to ensure compliance with the MANUAL HANDLING Operation Regulations 1992. The Warehouse manager need to ensure a suitable and sufficient assessments of all such manual handling operations are undertaken and have taken into account all foreseeable risks. In addition to the legal environment in the warehouse, the Warehouse manager needs to ensure compliance with The Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992 to minimise to eliminate or reduce possible eyesight or musculoskeletal disorders due to the effects of continual display screen equipment use. REVIEW OF THE HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM The KBR Swindon Safety Management System is based on BS OHSAS 18001:2007 Standard and follows the Plan-Do-Check-Act methodology. DESCRIPTION The general requirement of the Planning stage is to define and document the scope of the management system. This information is captured in the KBR Corporate HSE Policy which is a global document and is written in a very general and broad manner in an effort to comply with all possible projects on a global level. The management system has a process in place for hazard identification, risk assessment and determining controls covered in variousÃ work methods. The HSE Risk Assessment work method provides guidance on the specific duty placed upon KBR to carry out a suitable and sufficient assessment of all risks to the health and safety of employees and others, arising at or from a work activity. The Identification and Evaluation of HSE Legislative and Other Requirements process map identifies relevant HSE legislative requirements applicable and is recorded in the HSE Requirements Register. The KBR Swindon HSE Plan contains an organisation charts which clearly identifies roles, responsibilities and accountability for everyone working at the warehouse. KBR needs to ensure that everyone working in the warehouse is competent and experienced for the work that they are doing. The KBR Swindon Training Strategy contains a Training matrix to ensure appropriate level of competence at different levels of authority. The HSE Management system is available to all employees on the KBR intranet and regularly reviewed, updated and communicated via the intranet. KBR operates a three-tiered emergency response procedure whereby all projects and locations will ensure a Local Emergency Response Plan (LERP) is in place to manage low level emergencies. The KBR warehouse can then escalate the emergency to a Level 2 Incident Commander if it is deemed necessary and the Level 2 Incident Commander can escalate to a Level 3 global status in severed circumstances. KBR operates an integrated management system so the Audit Management System process required by the Quality Management System is used to conduct audits to determine the effectiveness of the controls in place. Health and Safety performance is measured using incident and accident statistics and completing monthly project reviews. Each project is set a target, usually a 10% reduction from the previous years incident rate, and is monitored against this target. This information is then discussed in a management review meeting on a quarterly basis.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Looking at a Growing City In her lecture, Ms. Gretchen Schneider gave an in depth study of the changing uses of space in the development of the city of Boston. Her study involved a look at the history and land of the city and how they informed the decisions made regarding development and change in the city. In Jack AhernÃ¢â¬â¢s lecture, he discussed landscape scenarios, which included a look at the different spatial concepts of landscape planning. Both lectures included information that could be extracted and applied when analyzing the development of any city. In this paper, I will be applying the ideas they presented in my own brief analysis of the development of my hometown, Nashua, NH. Nashua, New Hampshire is a small city of 175,000 people that lies on the border of Massachusetts. It began as an Indian fishing village along the Nashua River and with time and the construction of the Daniel Webster (Main) street, it grew to be a small factory town. Around the civil war times, Main Street became the main retail district as it was close to the textile factories that ran along the river. Small neighborhoods developed at either end of Main Street along with a railroad station west of the center of town. At this stage of NashuaÃ¢â¬â¢s development, it most closely resembled a contained interdigitation. The community and buildings were located in the central part of town, with a few neighborhoods that ran outside the boundaries. By about 1900, the city had begun to expand in all four directions, still fairly contained by the wilderness and the outskirts still resembled the interdigitation. BY the 1940, main other main roads were built, stemming from Main Street, and there was a great expansion, and the fingers of the interdigitation grew long, stretching into more of the wild land. Owners of the farms near town sold their land and moved to these areas on the western part of town, cleared the woods and built them selves huge farms and orchards. The neighborhoods north and south of the town got larger and expanded to east some. The growth of the city was becoming fast and town officials decided to begin claiming public grounds and building parks. It was at this time that Greeley Park was built that contained about a square quarter mile of land and Holman stadium was built at the northern part of town.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Maintaining a stable economy is no small challenge for any nation however possessing the ability to change and invent new and created ways of maintaining makes for a thriving economy. This newsletter will summarize the different economic factors that affect aggregate demand and supply such as unemployment, expectations, consumer income, and interest rates within the United States. Additionally, what fiscal policies are recommended by the United States government and whether or not these policies are effective and getting them back on track are discussed. Unemployment In the current state of unemployment as of July 2013, twenty eight states have had increases, eight states decreases, and fourteen states have had no change in unemployment rates, U.s. Bureau of Labor Statistics (2013). It was also reported that in June 2012 the rate was lower by .8 percent from 7.4 percent. While unemployment rates started to shoot to a high not seen in years, in 2008, the economy almost went into a recession. After President Obama took office he signed the Recovery Act in 2009. This act was the catalyst that sprung the economy out of its downward spiral and drove unemployment rates down. The act created more American jobs for out-of-work Americans bringing in 3.5 million jobs, Executive Office of the President (2013). Unemployment is consistently fluctuating and as of recently, the rates have been going down. Due to the government bail-outs and the Reinvestment Act also of 2009, more and more jobs have been created. Construction, road repairs, transit system enhancements and the auto industry in the U.S. have been invested in to restore jobs to the country. As of July 2013 some 7 million jobs have been added to the economy via private sectors contribution of employment for a span of 40 months. This just goes to show that the Recovery Act and the Reinvestment Act have made a sizable impact positively on unemployment to present. Expectations ConsumersÃ¢â¬â¢ expectations of the economy and where it stands plays a vital role in the consumption expenditures. According to Fazel: Ã¢â¬Å"It has been argued that customersÃ¢â¬â¢ expectations about the economyÃ¢â¬â¢s future should have an impact on consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ decisions about how much to consume and how much to save. While consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ expectations seem to be a strong predictor for future consumption expenditures, there are potential statistical problems with the use of current available estimates of consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations.Ã¢â¬ Consumers are not likely to spend or borrow money when the economy is unstable and uncertain therefore the consumption expenditures are down. This is a particular problem for a government trying to stable or maintain stability of its economy. The United States has generally done a good job at keeping their citizens vested in their economy. Consumer Income The United States is one of the greatest countries in the world with a population well over 300 hundred million citizens. It is the producer of the largest gross domestic product of the world. The primary factor contributing to this besides the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period of time is Consumer income. According to the BLS.gov (2011) Ã¢â¬Å"consumer income is generated through hourly wages, salary, tips, and other forms of incomeÃ¢â¬ . In the United States these income brackets can be divided into several classes, which include the Super-Rich (est.0.9%), Rich (est. 5%), Middle Class (majority; 46%), Working Class (est.40-45%), and the Poor (est. 12%) (BLS.gov, 2011). We as a society buy a variety of goods and services with our income resources, which contribute to the United States economy. The graph below demonstrates an average household income for typical U.S Household. Household Income by Quintiles According to the New York Times Data| All Households| Lowest 20%| Second 20%| Middle 20%| Fourth 20%| Highest 20%| Top 5%| Households (in 1000s)| 113,146| 22,629| 22,629| 22,629| 22,629| 22,629| 5,695| Lower limit| $0| $0| $18,500| $34,738| $55,331| $88,030| $157,176| Median number of income earners| 1| 0| 1| 1| 2| 2| 2| Owner occupied| 62.4%| 49.0%| 58.8%| 68.9%| 80.5%| 90.0%| 92.8%| Renter occupied| 29.2%| 48.3%| 39.7%| 29.9%| 18.7%| 9.6%| 6.9%| Non-family households| 31.93%| 58.92%| 40.02%| 29.96%| 19.12%| 11.64%| 9.36%| Family households| 68.06%| 41.06%| 59.97%| 70.04%| 80.87%| 88.35%| 90.61%| Married couple families| 51.35%| 19.03%| 38.89%| 51.00%| 67.05%| 80.08%| 85.59%| Single-male family| 4.32%| 3.08%| 4.64%| 5.69%| 4.89%| 3.30%| 2.47%| Single-female family| 12.38%| 18.94%| 16.43%| 13.35%| 8.93%| 4.24%| 2.54%| Interest Interest rates in one of the major components of why the United States economy is where it is stands today. Interest rate is the cost of borrowing money. The Federal Reserve has lowered interest rates to stabilize the economy. This is one of the fiscal policies they have applied to correct this problem. Yes, the recession of 2007 has caused for lowered interest rates in 2013. The economy has been on a downturn and one of the ways to turn this downward flow around is to lower interest rates. Applying low interest rates will help households across the states save money in addition to businesses finance new spending (Ã¢â¬Å"Why Are Interest Rates Being Kept at a Low Level?Ã¢â¬ 2013). Furthermore, because of the lowering of interest rates, the United States dollar is depreciating. Another policy the government has created is monetary incentives for businesses in hopes of getting them to hire more employees. This process will work however maybe not in the timeframe people want it to ha ppen. Overall, the Federal Reserve plays a vital role in that depreciation however, it has to for the economy to recover. Unemployment, expectations, consumer income, and interest rates all have an effect on the aggregate demand and supply. For example, high unemployment means there are less people working and less money to spend, therefore there is less demand on the economy. Additionally, unemployment could cause lower demand of labor which also effects aggregate demand and this shifts cause the aggregate demand to curve to the left. Next, expectations could increase the aggregate demand if households and businesses feel more comfortable about the stability of the economy, they will be more inclined to invest their money and make large purchases. Consumer income can increase or decrease aggregate demand simply by if a household has disposable income. Consumer expenditure is the largest factor to aggregate demand. When a household has disposable income, it is moreÃ likely the household will spend or invest those funds. If consumption increases, the quantity demanded of goods and services increases therefore the demand for supply increases. On the other hand, if consumption decreases, the quantity demanded of goods and services and supply decreases. Finally, interest rates also play a role in the possible shift of aggregate demand. The higher the interes t rates are for borrowing, the less likely households and businesses will want to borrow. When interest rates increases, investments decreases and conversely, when interest rates decreases, investments increases. Unemployment, expectations, consumer income, and interest rates can have a positive or negative effect on the aggregate demand and supply. In conclusion, maintaining a stable economy is enormous challenge that must be dealt with extreme care. The United States have created new ways of stabilizing its economy even though it was on the verge of a recession such as creating jobs for the unemployed and incentives for businesses hiring new employees. The different economic factors that affect the economy are unemployment, expectations, consumer income, and interest rates. The United States has done a good job in managing these different factors. Lowering interest rates will help the economy create revenue because consumers are more willing to borrow and spend money. The United States has incorporated these policies in effort to stable their economy. Thus far, they are the right track. References: (2013). Retrieved from http://whitehouse.gov/economy (2013). Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/home.htm (2013). Retrieved from http://www.cnbc.com/consumer.htm, Retrieved on 08/26/2013 (2013). Retrieved from http:/www.bls.gov/ers/unemployment Fazel, S. (2005, Spring). ConsumersÃ¢â¬â¢ Expectation and Consumption Expenditures. Journal for Economic Educators, 5(), 1-5. Why Are Interest Rates Being Kept at a Low Level?. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.federalreserve.gov/faqs/money_12849.htm
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Higher education should be free. Many people do not go to college or drop out of college due to the cost of tuition. Every year the cost of tuition increase. If college was free more people would be able to and want to go to college. This could have a major impact on jobs in the future. Some countries have free education from kindergarten to university, while students in other countries have to pay at every step of the way. This essay will look at some of the reasons for this difference at university level. Free third level education has several advantages. First of all, everyone can attend, so the gap between rich and poor students decreases as poorer students have more opportunity. The economy also benefits from the increased pool of highly educated labor. An educated workforce attracts employers and foreign investment. Socially, a more educated population should have more choices regarding nutrition, jobs and lifestyle. An additional point is that university fees only contribute a small proportion of the university budget. However, some people are opposed to free education. First of all, through their taxes, poor families subsidize rich students who can easily afford to pay fees. A second point is that spending government money on free education is often not possible or desirable when a country needs hospitals, roads, and primary or secondary schools. A third point is that a university education is a choice, not a requirement. People who finish college with advancedShow MoreRelatedShould Free Higher Education Be Free?1982 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesFree Higher Education We pay a price for everything we get or take in this world. Although ambitions are well worth having, they are not to be cheaply won. Every day is an opportunity to make your life the way you want it to be. Anything is possible when you work towards it one day at a time. Skip a day and you lose momentum. 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